Eger Senator Marco Rubio ishlitiwatqan "Xinjiang" digen sozni uninggha xet yezish arqiliq ozgertelesh mumkinchiligi bolsa "Uyghurstan" digen isimni qollaydighan qerindashlarning Hashir Wahidi ependining "East Turkistan Or Uyghurstan?" digen maqalisining Ingilizchisini yollap berishinglarni umut qilimen. Shuning bilen qoshup Uyghurstan nami mutleq kop sandiki Uyghurlarning arzusi ikenligini eskertishinglarni umut qilimen. Wetendiki Uyghurlar hetta "Sherqi Turkistan" namini asasi jehettiin bilmeydu, bu riyalliq. "Uyghurstan" naminimu bilmeydu diyishinglar mumkin? lekin xelq ozini Uyghur dep atighanlighi uchun Uyghurstan digen namni tebiy haldila qobul qilalaydu.

Eger xet yezip telep qilish arqiliq "Xinjiang" digen namni ozgertish mumkin bolmisa hich bolmighanda " Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region" dep yazghuzush kerek, buni choqum shundaq yazalaydu. Gerche bu nammu oxshashla biz qobul qilmaydighan nam bolsimu lekin Uyghur digen namimiz buning ichide bar. Yazmighandin yazghan yaxshi.

--- Xenjer






East Turkistan Or Uyghuristan?

Sun, 08/15/2004 - 12:00

Hashir Wahidi

Until now, our country has been called by various names such as "Uyghuristan", "Eastern Turkistan", "Xinjiang" or "Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region". Among these names "Xinjiang" or "XUAR" are Chinese names forcibly imposed by the Han Chinese. Therefore, we have considered these names illegal and have never admitted and will never admit to them.

As to "Eastern Turkistan" and "Uyghuristan", each of these names has an origin and a historical root. It is now necessary to conduct a scientific discussion about the origins of these two names: their meanings and the extent of their adoption, seeking to draw right conclusions and to answer these questions: Which of these names is right? Which of these names is appropriate for us under the present historical conditions? These are the topics that we want to discuss and the problems that we want to address in this article.

First of all, let us briefly discuss the name "Eastern Turkistan". It is known that in our history, i.e., in the 9th-12th century, several very strong Kharahan countries existed in Central Asia. Although these Kharahan countries were Uyghur countries, in fact, they were also the common lands of the Turkic peoples. The Uyghur Kharahan countries combined their territories with those of many other Turkic-speaking peoples living in Central Asia, and united all those people under one flag. Accordingly, the united country was given the name "Turkistan" in a geographical sense. However, this unified nation formed under a specific historical condition and the name of "Turkistan" did not exist for long.

In 1048, after the death of Nesir Ilik Han, the Ilik Han people living in the western region of the Kharahan Hakhan's domains (present day Uzbekizstan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, etc.) declared their independence from the Kharahan nation. The Kharahan government, on the other hand, agreed to the request of the Ilik Han to split off as the Tavghac Kharahan and become an independent country. Thus, the territory of the great Kharahan nation split into two parts. In reference to the geographical locations of these territories, people began to call the western part as Western Turkistan and the eastern part as Eastern Turkistan. That is, the name "Eastern Turkistan" was brought to existence under these historical conditions. In addition, under the historical conditions of that period, the territory of "Eastern Turkistan" only included the southern side of the Tengri-tagh range, and did not include the Jungar Basin located in the northern side of the Tengri-tagh. At that time, the southern side of the Tengri-tagh was considered as belonging to the territory of the Kharahan nation, while the eastern and northern sides of the mountains as the territory of the Idikhut nation. That is, it is self-evident that Eastern Turkistan was a geographical name meaning "the eastern part of Turkistan" and that this name did not include the whole territory of the Uyghur nation.

It was revealed in the European and Russian scientists' work that the adoption of the name Eastern Turkistan started after 1869, that is, after the Russian Red Imperialists' (RRIs) occupation of Central Asia and Khazakstan. Hidden under this name is the RRI's invasion conspiracy. What the RRIs tried to do by using the name Eastern Turkistan was, first, to deny the proprietary claims of the eastern Han Chinese invaders on this territory, and, second, to pave the way for occupying Eastern Turkistan after their occupation of Western Turkistan. After the collapse of the RRIs, their successors, the Soviet Social Imperialists (SSIs), carried on their prior imperialistic system. The only difference between the two was that the SSIs found it advantageous to follow a policy of "divide and conquer". As a consequence of the policy, Western Turkistan was divided into 5 republics on the basis of different ethnic groups. Even though Western Turkistan belonged to the Soviet Union, Stalin and the people around him considered it potentially dangerous to keep it intact, and thus divided it into ethnic regions. This led to the loss of the basis for the name of Eastern Turkistan.

It is not surprising that Stalin violently hated the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Republic established on Nov. 12, 1933, in Kashgar under the leadership of Sabit Damolla, which he helped to abolish by using military force. This was in fact Stalin's consistent policy. The Eastern Turkistan Republic that was later established in Ili in 1944 also became a victim of that policy. The Soviets believed that if an independent country came to existence in the region of Uyghuristan, it would influence the people in Soviet Central Asia and Khazakistan and lead to the separation of these people as countries independent from the imperialism of the so-called Soviet Union . Indeed, the subsequent historic development of those people in Soviet Central Asia and Khazakistan resulted in their independence from the Soviet Union. The so-called "undetachable union of the unified republics" was destroyed. However, this became a reality not because of the influence of Uyghuristan, but due to an irreversible trend of social development.

In summary:

1. The name Eastern Turkistan was a geographic term created under certain historical conditions, and has never become a name of a country or a nationality.

2. Eastern Turkistan is a term used to refer to the south side of the Tengri-tagh mountain range, and does not refer to the whole territory of today's Uyghuristan.

3. There must be a Western Turkistan in order to have an Eastern Turkistan. But the current reality is that there is no Western Turkistan. It was divided in 1936, and based on those regional divisions the 5 post-Soviet republics were created. All of these republics used the names of their peoples for the countries' names, such as Khazakistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Therefore, it is not appropriate to name our country as Eastern Turkistan under the present historical conditions.

Now let us briefly discuss the name Uyghuristan. If we examine historical records, we find that since mid century the name of our nationality was called Uyghur and the name of our country was called either Uyghuristan or Mulkul Uyghuriye. In the book "Oghuzname" Oghuzhan wrote: "I am the Hakhan of Uyghur".

In volume 6, page 227 of the 6-volume book of "Behrar esrar muna qip Eleh'yar" written by Muhemmet bin Beli, it was emphasized that the "Uyghurs' country is Uyghuristan". If we recall that this sentence was
given in the chapter that described the conflicts between Kirgiz and Uyghur, then we can see that the name "Uyghuristan" has a history of 1300 years.

Arab historian Ibnel Esir emphasizes, in the chapter "About Uyghur Khans" of his book titled "Jamrul", that "Kharahans' country is Mulkul Uyghuriye... The Kharahans who destroyed Samani's country and occupied Buhara in 909 are Uyghur Shahs."

European scientist Fran said: "Only Uyghur Khans lived in Turkistan", and Australian Eduar Zahar said: "Kharahans were the Uyghurs' rulers." Russian Turkish expert Grigoryev, academy members Radlov and Miller also stated that "All representatives of the Kharahan Dynasty were Uyghurs."

Throughout history, Uyghurs called the countries that they established by various names. For example, the Uyghur Hakhan centered in Kharabalghasun that existed from 745-840; the Kengsu Uyghur Nation that existed from 870 to 1225; the Idikhut Nation that continued from 850-1275; the Kharahan Nation in 870-1213; the Se'idiye Uyghur Nation that existed from 1514-1675 with its capital located in Yarkend; and the Kashgariye 6-City Nation existing from 1863-1877 under the leadership of Yakhupbeg.

Although these names changed according to the historical conditions, there is no doubt that these were Uyghur nations. These facts clearly prove that our ancestors -- Uyghurs -- had independent countries throughout history and that these countries were named Uyghuristan and Mulkul Uyghuriye.

Now let us look at our brother peoples in neighboring countries. Our neighboring countries are Khazakistan, Kyrgyzistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tibet, China and Mongolia. Each of these countries is called by the name of the people who were/are the original owners of the country. That is, the name of each of those countries was formed by adding something at the end of the name of her people. It is very natural to form a country's name that way; such a country's name itself can explain who are the owners of the country. Naming a country this way is not against the interest of other peoples living in the same country. The national and human rights of those peoples can still be fully guaranteed. We can see this from the brother republics we are living in now.

Summarizing what was described above we can say that the name of our race (nationality?) is Uyghur and the name of our country is Uyghuristan. Therefore, our future country should be named "Uyghuristan". This is a very appropriate name that is very suitable to the present time. Therefore, we propose to name our country "Uyghuristan" in our language.

Some people may blame us for this proposal, by telling us: "The meaning of the name Uyghuristan is very narrow; it only refers to Uyghur people. There are other Turkish-speaking brother peoples in our country. (There are 84 nationalities in Kyrgyzistan-Rabiye Yakub) They will be left outside. We need to cooperate with them in our struggles for freedom. Therefore, we need to use the name "Eastern Turkistan" which is an inclusive name and is helpful for total unification." We can say in response to such accusations that, first, the name "Uyghuristan" does not mean that she is only the Uyghurs' country and other peoples do not have the right of ownership. It only emphasizes that the original owners of this territory are Uyghurs, thus helping to restore the Uyghurs' rights to have their own country. Second, the name "Uyghuristan" is not against the national and human rights of the brother peoples; on the contrary, it guarantees those rights. The independence problem of the brother peoples has already been solved. Khazaks have Khazakistan, and Uzbeks have Uzbekistan. The Uyghurs living in those republics have given voluntary aid to gain their national independence. Now they should help their Uyghur brothers in obtaining the Uyghurs' national independence. Third, just as other peoples called their countries with their own names, we should call our country with our own name as "Uyghuristan". Especially now, when the Chinese invaders are trying to change "XUAR" to "Western Region" with the purpose of denying Uyghurs from the rights of having their own country, why cannot we insist in calling our country with the name of the Uyghur people?

As to the problem that the world does not know the name Uyghuristan, then we should let it know! If we do not introduce ourselves to the world, nobody else will do it for us! Less than 60 years ago, the world did not know the names of Khazakistan, Kyrgyzistan, etc. But now the world knows them. This is because these republics now exist in the world. If we can create an Uyghuristan, then the world will know it.

Now as to the proposal of using Eastern Turkistan, we do not accept it. The reason is: 1) ET is not the name of a people or a nation, instead, it is a geographic term. 2) This name does not refer to the entire Uyghur territory; it leaves out the Uyghur territory on the northern side of the Tengri-tagh range. 3) Because it is not the name of a country but a geographic term, foreign countries call it with various names in their own languages. For example, we call it Sherkiy Turkistan; Turks call it Doghu Turkistan; Arabs call it Sut Turkistan Alshirqiya; English calls it Eastern Turkistan; and Russian calls it Vostocniy Turkistan. 4) In order for an ET to exist, there must exist a Western Turkistan, because these two names need each other. We know that Western Turkistan has already ceased to exist. Now there are several republics in its place.

Furthermore, all these republics are called by the names of their peoples. If, under such circumstances, we do not call our country by our own name and insist on using the inclusive name of ET even when it does not have a western part, then it becomes completely meaningless.

Some people also suggest that "Let us call our country ET for the moment. If the Turkish-speaking peoples unite and become a common Turkistan Nation in the future, then we become a part of this Turkistan Nation." First of all, now there exists no such Turkistan Nation; what exists are those separate national republics. Correspondingly, we too become a national republic, that is, Uyghuristan. If indeed a Great Turkistan Nation (GTN) is created in the future, just as the other brother peoples join the GTN with their national republics, we join the GTN with our own national republic -- our Uyghuristan. Is it necessary to put on a "big hat" today to qualify for a future Turkistan?

We are realists; we should do things according to the present real situations. Only by doing so can we avoid political mistakes. Some people think: "ET is a name that has been used for a long time and is used in the international world. Therefore, it is better to use ET."

About this, the Uyghur people's well-known nationalist son, Mr. Isa Yusuf Aliptekin, wrote in his book the following: "In the past 40 years in which I worked for the Uyghurs' causes, I have met and talked to many government officials of various countries. But I found that none of those government officials know the existence of an ET." This shows that, despite the hard work of our countrymen in letting the world know the existence of ET, the name ET could not get to the international stages; it was not raised to the level of an international concept.

Indeed, the name Uyghuristan suffered the same fate; it did not get to the international stages either. However, this is the most correct, most advantageous name that well represents our race (nationality?) and our country. If we can introduce ourselves to the world with this name, then there is no doubt that it will get a place in the heart of our own people and bring about the sympathy of the world communities. Dear Uyghur children, let us keep the great name of our country, Uyghuristan, in our hearts. Let us shine the whole world with its light.

(Translated from Uyghur by Erkin Sidick; Jan. 7, 1998)

https://uyghuramerican.org/article/e...ghuristan.html