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The Coming China Wars

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Endnotes
NOTE TO READERS. Much of the research conducted for this book was done over the internet. For your convenience, I have provided the URLs of all references that where available at the time of this writing. I have also posted this “Notes” section of the book on my website at www.peternavarro.com/chinawars.html as a downloadable file. Each of the URL’s appear in this file as hyperlinked text that you can click on and go right to the relevant page.
(c)Chapter 1
1. Pete Engardio, Dexter Roberts, with Brian Bremner in Beijing, and bureau reports, “The China Price,” Business Week, December 6, 2004.
http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/04_49/b3911401.htm
2. Richard McGregor, Financial Mail, July 8, 2005.
3. See note 1 above.
4. The U.S. civilian labor force is roughly 150 million.
5. “China Confronts Problems of Growth,” Times (London), September 30, 2003.
6. Jim Yardley, “Migrant Work Leaves Families Broken; The Great Divide/A Missing Generation,” International Herald Tribune/New York Times, December 22, 2004.
7. Kim Peterson, “The Broken Iron Rice Bowl,” Dissident Voice, August 18, 2003.
http://www.dissidentvoice.org/Articles7/Petersen_China-Growth.htm
8. “China: Quicken Urbanization Pace,” China Daily, November 18, 1999.
9. Tong Xin and Lu Qingshuang. “China’s Highly Dangerous Inverted T-Shaped Social Structure,” Epoch Times, March 20, 2006.
http://www.theepochtimes.com/news/6-3-20/39495.html
10. From 1988 to 1997, the average annual U.S. grain production was 395 million tons, but actual production ranged from 274 million tons (31% below the average) to 469 million tons (19% above the average). “Rail Officials to Participate in Grain Transport Conference.” PR Newswire, July 23, 1998.
11. Joseph Kahn, “Chinese Girls' Toil Brings Pain, Not Riches,” New York Times, October 2, 2003.
http://www.international.ucla.edu/asia/rights/Chinesegirls031002.asp
12. By decree, there is only one “labor union” in China, and that is the Communist Party.
13. Joseph Kahn, “China’s Workers Risk Limbs in Export Drive,” New York Times, April 7, 2003. [emphasis added]
http://www.asria.org/ref/library/social/lib/031208_NYTimes_sweatshops_inchina.pdf
14. R. H. McGuckin and M. Spiegelman, “China’s Experience with Productivity and Jobs,” The Conference Board, 2004.
http://www.conference-board.org/publications/describe.cfm?id=809
15. See note 1 above.
16. Michael Enright, Edith Scott, and Ka-Mun Chang, Regional Powerhouse: The Greater Pearl River Delta and the Rise of China (John Wiley & Sons, 2005), 57.
17. See generally Ibid.
18. Quoted in “Genuine Problem: Counterfeit Products from China Continue to Bedevil Makers of Legitimate Goods,” Journal of Commerce. June 27, 2005.
19. “The Importance of Trade Remedies to the US Trade Relationship with China,” US-China Economic and Security Review Commission, May 16, 2005.
20. The traditional economist’s assumption of “holding other things constant” is critical here.
21. The Chinese claim to have changed to a more adjustable currency. However, little adjustment appears to be taking place, at least at the time of this book’s writing.
22. Remarks by Commerce Secretary Donald L. Evans to the President's Export Council[md]American Chamber of Commerce in Beijing, China, June 23, 2004.
http://hongkong.usconsulate.gov/uscn/trade/general/doc/2004/062301.htm
23. See note 19 above.
(c)Chapter 2
. Quoted in “Genuine Problem: Counterfeit products from China Continue to Bedevil Makers of Legitimate Goods,” Journal of Commerce. June 27, 2005.
2. Tim Phillips, Knockoff: The Deadly Trade in Counterfeit Goods (London: Kogan Page, 2005), 19.
3. “The Purse-Party Blues,” Time, August 2, 2004.
4. Statement of Professor Daniel C. K. Chow, Congressional-Executive Commission on China, May 16, 2005. “Intellectual Property Protection as Economic Policy: Will China Ever Enforce Its IP Laws?” http://www.cecc.gov/pages/roundtables/051605/Chow.php
5. David Kirkpatrick, “China Won’t Protect IP Until It Gets Its Own IT,” Fortune (Europe), June 27, 2005.
6. Oded Shenkar, The Chinese Century (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Wharton School Publishing), 88.
7. Ted Fishman, China, Inc. (New York: Scribner, 2005), 236.
8. See note 2 above, quoted on pages 64[nd]65.
9. Jeff Sanford, “Knockoff Nation,” Canadian Business, November 8, 2004.
0. “China City Is Haven for Fake Fram , Bogus Bose,” Automotive News, October 27, 2003.
1 . “Counterfeiting Costs Auto Industry Billions,” Plastics News, November 17, 2003.
2. Joann Muller, “Stolen Cars,” Forbes, February 16, 2004.
http://www.forbes.com/business/forbes/2004/0216/058.html
3. See note 10 above.
4. Tim Kraus (vice president, Heavy-Duty Market-Segment Association), “Counterfeiting: The 21st Century Crime,” Fleet Equipment, March 2005.
5. See note 12 above.
6. James Nurton, “The New Battle Against Counterfeits,” Managing Intellectual Property. October 2005.
7. Ibid.
8. See note 2 above, page 22.
9. See note 16 above.
20. Mathew Benjamin, “A World of Fakes,” U.S. News & World Report, July 14, 2003.
21. See note 2 above, page 189.
22. See note 2 above, page 202.
23. See note 2 above.
24. See note 7 above, page 252.
25. Timothy P. Trainer, “The Fight Against Trademark Counterfeiting,” China Business Review, November/December 2002.
26. “No End for China's Counterfeiting Contagion,” Women's Wear Daily, October 11, 2004.
http://www.betsylowther.com/counter1.html
27. “Vendors Step Up Efforts in Counterfeit War,” Women's Wear Daily, April 11, 2005.
28. See note 6 above, page 90.
29. “Not All Is Fair in China's Booming Bike Business,” Bicycle Retailer & Industry News, April 1, 2004
30. See note 16 above.
31. See note 2 above, page 59.
32. See note 2 above, quoted on page 39.
33. See note 6 above, page 96.
34. See note 3 above.
35. “Fakes!” Business Week, February 7, 2005.
36. “Copyright Lesson,” Managing Intellectual Property, April 2005.
37. See note 26 above.
38. See note 2 above, page 61.
39. Tony Chen and Pilar Woo, “China in 2004 and Beyond,” Managing Intellectual Property, http://www.managingip.com/?Page=17&ISS=12730&SID=495719
40. Ibid.
41. “Toyota Lost a Lawsuit Against a Chinese Car Manufacturer,” CCPIT Patent and Trademark Law Office.
http://www.ccpit-patent.com.cn/News/2003123006.htm
(c)Chapter 3
1. Wonacott, Peter. “Polluters in China Feel No Pain,” Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2004.
2. Polakovic, Gary, “Asia’s Wind-Borne Pollution a Hazardous Export to U.S.,” Los Angeles Times, April 26, 2002.
http://www.al.noaa.gov/ITCT/2k2/news.shtml
3. “Benxi is located in the eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province. It is an important industrial raw material base of iron and steel, coal, building materials and chemical products. About 1.5 million people live in Benxi. During the past decades, Benxi has undergone drastic economic, social, and urban development, becoming one of the 17 largest cities in China.”
http://www.chinacp.com/eng/cpcities/cp_benxi.html
4. “Benxi to Experiment with Emissions Trading,” U.S. Embassy in Beijing, June 2000.
http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/sandt/Benxiweb.htm
5. Joshua Kurlantzick. “Purple Haze,” New Republic, August 30, 2004.
http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=20040830&s=kurlantzick083004
6. Matt Pottinger, Steve Stecklow, and John J. Fialka, “Invisible Export[md]a Hidden Cost of China’s Growth: Mercury Migration,” Wall Street Journal, December 20, 2004.
http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=5058
7. “People in the felt-hat industry sometimes showed signs of mercury poisoning and came down with "Mad-Hatter" syndrome. This is where the phrase ‘mad as a hatter’ originated and was the basis for the ‘Mad Hatter’ character in Lewis Carroll's book Alice in Wonderland.” Quoted from “Get the MERCURY Out! The Effects of Mercury on the Nervous System,” Neuroscience for Kids. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/merc.html
8. Carolyn Williams, “China: A Land Turned to Dust,” New Scientist, June 4, 2005.
http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=mg18625021.400&feedId=earth_rss20
9. Jonathan Watts, “Satellite Data Reveals Beijing as Air Pollution Capital of World,” Guardian (London), October 31, 2005.
10. “A Great Wall of Waste,” Economist, August 21, 2004.
11. See note 6 above.
12. See note 6 above.
13. “Five Who Laid the Groundwork for Historic Spike in Oil Market,” Wall Street Journal, December 20, 2005.
14. China’s Acid Rain Pollution Worsens in 2003,” People’s Daily, March 25, 2004.
http://english.people.com.cn/200403/25/eng20040325_138514.shtml
15. “Grapes of Wrath in Inner Mongolia,” U.S. Embassy in Beijing, May 2001.
http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/sandt/MongoliaDust-web.htm
16. Ron Gluckman, “Beijing's Desert Storm,” Asiaweek, October 13, 2000.
http://www.gluckman.com/ChinaDesert.html
17. This is also spelled Mengzi or Meng-tzu.
18. Shi Yuanchun (professor and ex-president of China Agricultural University, and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences), “Reflections on Twenty Year’s Desertification-Control in China.”
http://us.tom.com/english/2137.htm
19. “Asian Dust, Sand Storms Worsening, U.N. Says,” MSNBC, March 31, 2004. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4638243/
20. “Beijing Environment, Science and Technology Update for March 29, 2002,” U.S. Embassy in Beijing.
http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/sandt/estnews032902.htm
21. See note 8 above.
22. Yang Youlin, Victor Squires, and Lu Qi, eds., “Global Alarm: Dust and Sandstorms from the World's Drylands,” United Nations, Convention to Combat Desertification. June 2002.
http://www.unccd.int/publicinfo/duststorms/menu.php
23. Lester R. Brown, “Deserts Invading China: From Ecological Deficits to Dust Bowl,” in The Earth Policy Reader (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2002).
24. Peili Shi and Jintao Xu, “Deforestation in China.”
http://www.usc.cuhk.edu.hk/wk_wzdetails.asp?id=1290
25. Margaret Hsu and Laura Yee, “The Asian Brown Cloud,” Global Environmental Issues.
http://www.sfuhs.org/features/globalization/asian_cloud/
26. Michael Richardson, South China Morning Post, August 27, 2004.
27. “Warning by UN as Dust Storms Worsen,” Financial Times (London), April 3, 2004.
28. Patrick Mazza and Rhys Roth, “Global Warming Is Here: The Scientific Evidence.”
http://www.climatesolutions.org/pubs/gwih.html
29. ”World: Asia-Pacific China's Floods: Is Deforestation to Blame?” BBC, August 6, 1999.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/413717.stm
30. See note 28 above.
31. “Global Warming,” Natural Resources Defense Council, http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/f101.asp#1
32. Jim Yardley. “Rivers Run Black and Chinese Die of Cancer,” New York Times, September 12, 2004. http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/develop/quality/2004/0912chinapollution.htm
33. “Bureaucracy: A Controversial Necessity,” Democracy in America,
http://www.learner.org/channel/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_8/dia_8_video.html
34. Victor Mallet. “Dirty Business: The Scale of China’s Environmental Problems Defies an Optimistic Outlook,” Financial Times (London), June 26, 2004
35. See note 10 above.
36. Joseph Kahn, “Foul Water and Air Part of Cost of the Boom in China's Exports,” New York Times, November 4, 2003.
(c)Chapter 4
. Patrick H. Donovan, “Oil Logistics: In the Pacific War,” Air Force Journal of Logistics, Spring 2004. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IBO/is_1_28/ai_n6172425/print
2. Japan’s incursions into what is now Indonesia also played a role while Great Britain joined in the boycott.
3. U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission 2004 Report to Congress, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, Chapter 6: China’s Energy Needs and Strategies, 152.
4. R. L. Hirsch, R. H. Bezdek, and R. M. Wendling, Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation and Risk Management, DOE NETL, February 2005.
5. In 2005, China finished building its first tank farm in Zhenhai, which is located in the port city of Ningbo. This 33-million-barrel facility will hold about one third of China’s planned reserves, but high oil prices have made it difficult to fill. (China Daily, September 2, 2005) Even when China’s reserve is finished sometime over the next five years, it will only hold 20 days of consumption (102 million barrels versus the 700-million-barrel capacity of the United States.).
6. In this regard, to noneconomists, it may seem counterintuitive to blame China for the kind of demand-driven oil price shocks that the world economy as already begun to suffer from. After all, as just noted, it is the United States and not China that is by far the largest oil consumer. Economists, however, always look not at total consumption per se when determining price effects but rather at incremental consumption that occurs at the “margin.” Viewed from this perspective, China’s rapidly growing thirst for oil has been a highly disruptive influence on oil markets, which have had plenty of capacity to meet traditional U.S. and other world needs but now find themselves straining mightily to keep up with China’s growing thirst at the market’s margin.
7. “The Impact of Higher Oil Prices on The Global Economy,” International Monetary Fund, December 8, 2000.
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/oil/2000/oilrep.PDF
8. See note 4 above.
9. Mark Magnier, “China Stakes Claim for Global Oil Access,” Los Angeles Times, July 17, 2005.
10. Stanly Lubman, “The Dragon as Demon: Images of China on Capital Hill,” Journal of Contemporary China, 13(40), August 2004, 541[nd]565.
http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=2U5A1VACL6K7BLPNC7WB
1. Joseph Kahn, “Chinese General Threatens Use of A-Bombs If the US Intrudes,” New York Times, July 15, 2005.
12. Constantine C. Menges, China: The Gathering Threat (Nashville: Nelson Current, 2005).
13. See note 3 above, page 151.
14. Dan Blumenthal, “Providing Arms: China and the Middle East,” The Middle East Quarterly, XII(2), Spring 2005. http://www.meforum.org/article/695
15. The only condition that China has[md]and it’s a very loose one[md]is that a country not officially recognize Taiwan.
16. “Forget Mao, Let’s Do Business,” Economist, February 7, 2004.
17. Daniel Byman and Cliff Roger, “China’s Arms Sales: Motivations and Implications,” Rand, 1999, 8. http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1119/MR1119.chap3.pdf
18. See note 14 above.
9. “Iran Country Analysis Brief,” Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/iran.html
20. U.S. Department of State Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Country Reports on Terrorism 2004, April 2005, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/45313.pdf
21. “Iran Makes Another Step Towards Nuclear Bomb Slovene Daily Says,” BBC Monitoring International Reports, August 2005.
22. “China Signs $70 Billion Oil and LNG Agreement with Iran,” Daily Star, October 30, 2004.
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_id=10&categ_id=3&article_id=9713
23. “A New Scramble; China’s Business Links with Africa,” Economist, November 27, 2004.
24. As noted in U.N. documentation, “in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, decisions of the Security Council are made by an affirmative vote of nine members of the Council including the concurring votes of the five permanent members (China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America). If a permanent member casts a negative vote, the draft resolution being voted on is not passed.” This veto power accrues to all permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Besides China, this list includes France, Great Britain, the United States, and the Russian Federation.
25. Stephanie Giry, “China’s Africa Strategy. Out of Beijing,” New Republic, November 15, 2004.
26. “Global Trade, Local Impact: Arms Transfers to All Sides in the Civil War in Sudan,” Human Rights Watch, August 1998. http://www.hrw.org/reports98/sudan/Sudarm988-03.htm
27. Other nations include Cuba, Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Syria.
28. Karby Leggett, “China Flexes Economic Muscles Throughout Burgeoning Africa,” Wall Street Journal, March 29, 2005.
http://www.howardwfrench.com/archives/2005/03/29/china_flexes_economic_muscle_throughout_burgeoning _africa/
29. Jean-Christophe Servant, “China’s Trade Safari in Africa,” Le Monde diplomatique, May 2005.
30. John McMillan, “The Main Institution in the Country Is Corruption: Creating Transparency in Angola,” Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law, Stanford Institute on International Studies.
http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/20814/Corruption_transparency_Angola1_No36.pdf
31. “Time for Transparency,” Global Witness, March 2004.
http://www.globalwitness.org/reports/show.php/en.00049.html
32. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, U.S. Department of State. February 25, 2000.
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/1999/223.htm
33. Steven Mosher, Hegemon (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2000), p. 105.
35. Charles Wolf Jr. et al., “Fault Lines in China’s Economic Terrain,” Rand, 2003.
http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1686/
36. Ibid.
37. “Japan and China Face Off over Energy,” Asia Times Online, July 2, 2005.
http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Japan/GG02Dh01.html
38. “Japan’s Provocation in East China Sea Very Dangerous,” Peoples Daily Online, July 21, 2005. http://english.people.com.cn/200507/21/eng20050721_197493.html
39. “Oil and Gas in Troubled Waters,” Economist, October 6, 2005.
40. See note 37 above.
41. Richard Rhodes and Denis Beller, “The Need for Nuclear Power,” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2000.
(c)Chapter 5
1. “Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism,”
http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/imp-hsc/
2. “China Looms Large in the Global Mining Industry,” Asia Pacific Business, April 4, 2003.
http://www.asiapacificbusiness.ca/apbn/pdfs/bulletin102.pdf
3. “Chinese and Builders Go Global,” Far Eastern Economic Review, May 13, 2004.
4. Ibid.
5. Lindsey Hilsum, “The Chinese Are Coming,” New Statesman, July 4, 2005.
http://www.newstatesman.com/200507040007
6. Mao Tse-tung, “The People of Asia, Africa and Latin America Should Unite and Drive American Imperialism Back to Where It Came From,” May 7, 1959.
http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-8/mswv8_52.htm
7. “No Questions Asked,” Economist, January 19, 2006.
http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=5425730
8. Samuel Wilson, “The Emperor’s Giraffe,” Natural History (101:12), December 1992.
http://muweb.millersville.edu/~columbus/data/art/WILSON09.ART
9. Lindsey Hilsum, “We Love China,” Granta. http://www.granta.com/extracts/2616
10. Ibid.
11. See note 5 above.
12. Karby Leggett, “Staking a Claim China Flexes Economic Muscle Throughout Burgeoning Africa,” Wall Street Journal, March 29, 2005.
http://www.howardwfrench.com/archives/2005/03/29/china_flexes_economic_muscle_throughout_burgeoning _africa/
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. “Exports by and Imports from Africa,” Global Timer.
http://www.globaltimber.org.uk/africa.htm
17. See note 11 above.
18. Stephanie Giry, “China’s Africa Strategy. Out of Beijing,” New Republic, November 15, 2004.
19. See note 9 above.
20. Vivienne Walt, “China’s African Safari,” Fortune (53:3) February 20, 2006, 58[nd]63.
http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2006/02/20/8369153/index.htm
21. “Africa: China’s Great Leap into the Continent,” Reuters, March 23, 2006.
http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/IRIN/acc4f61d2e9ccffcbb52abfb6cbf5e65.htm
22. “Made in China,” Business Africa, July 1[nd]15, 2005.
23. “China’s Business Links with Africa, a New Scramble,” Economist, November 25, 2004.
http://www.economist.com/business/displayStory.cfm?story_id=3436400
24. See note 9 above.
25. See note 19 above.
26. Moeletsi Mbeki, “The Future Is to Follow China,” New Statesman, March 14, 2005.
http://www.newstatesman.com/nssubsfilter.php3?newTemplate=NSArticle_NS&newDisplayURN=200503140020
27. Henry Corbett Dillon,. “China’s Back-Door Energy Squeeze,” The Ornery American, June 17, 2005.
http://www.ornery.org/essays/2005-06-17-1.html
28. Tom Buerkle, “Ole China,” Institutional Investor-International Edition (30:3), March 2005, 45[nd]49.
29. Stephen Johnson, “Balancing China’s Growing Influence in Latin America,” Backgrounder #1888, The Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2005.
http://www.heritage.org/Research/LatinAmerica/bg1888.cfm
30. Jane Bussey and Glenn Garvin, “China Exerting Regional Influence: Analysts Warn of Political, Strategic Challenges to U.S. in Latin America,” Miami Herald, April 15, 2001.
http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuba/china-influence.htm
31. David Sax, “A Hungry Dragon,” Canadian Business (78:1), December 27, 2004, 27[nd]28.
http://www.canadianbusiness.com/managing/article.jsp?content=20041227_64453_64453
32. According to Stephen Johnson of the Heritage Foundation, “ Radio China International signals originate from Cuba, as does inter¬ference with U.S. East Coast radio communications and air traffic control, according to Federal Com¬munications Commission complaints.” See note 28 above.
33. See note 28 above.
34. “China Goes Latin,” Economist, February 14, 2005.
35. See note 28 above.
36. Paul Harris, “Chile Close on China FTA,” Reuters, September 24, 2005.
http://www.bilaterals.org/article.php3?id_article=2771
37. Geri Smith, “China and Chile: South America Is Watching,” Business Week Online, November 18, 2005.
http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/nov2005/nf20051118_8302_db016.htm?campaign_id=rss_daily
38. See note 33 above.
39. See note 27 above.
40. See note 27 above.
41. See note 28 above.
42. See note 28 above.
43. See note 27 above.
44. “Falling Out of Love: Brazil’s Affair with China Is Going Off the Boil,” Economist, August 4, 2005.
http://www.economist.com/world/la/displayStory.cfm?story_id=4249937
45. Ibid.
46. See note 28 above.
47. Melody Chen, “Taiwan, Grenada Set to Cut Ties,” Taiwan Times, January 27, 2005.
http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2005/01/27/2003221117
48. Ibid.
49. See note 27 above.
50. See note 29 above.
(c)Chapter 6
. “Drug Intelligence Brief,” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, Intelligence Division. February 2004.
http://fas.org/irp/agency/doj/dea/product/china0204.pdf
2. “The Great Ecstasy Epidemic,” London Observer, September 2003.
http://mdma.net/club-drugs/global-ecstasy.html
3. The Golden Crescent also includes Iran and Pakistan. It is named for the “mountainous peripheries [that] define the crescent.” Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy. “Drug Trade in Asia,” Encyclopedia of Modern Asia (Chicago: Scribner’s, 2002).
http://www.pa-chouvy.org/drugtradeinasia.html
4. According to Wikipedia, “[I]t takes 10 kg of opium to make 1 kg of 90% pure heroin. The CIA states that impurities are introduced into the processed heroin before it hits the street, making the purity of the end consumer product about 40%. That implies that 10 kg of opium makes about 2.25 kg of 40% pure heroin.” Assuming a street value of roughly $2 per gram, an equally rough estimate of the value of a ton of pure Afghan heroin (which commands a premium over lesser-quality Mexican heroin) exceeds $1 billion. This estimate is consistent with information from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, which puts the street value of a ton of heroin at around a billion dollars. See http://www.dea.gov/pubs/states/newyork.html.
5. Kristianna Tho’Mas, “Opium War: Britain Stole Hong Kong from China,” Workers World, July 10, 1997. http://www.serendipity.li/wod/hongkong.html
6. Frontline, “The Opium Kings.” “The first to process heroin was C. R. Wright, an English researcher who unwittingly synthesized heroin (diacetylmorphine) in 1874 when he boiled morphine and a common chemical, acetic anhydride, over a stove for several hours.” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/heroin/transform/
7. According to Wikipedia, “’Realpolitik’ is foreign policy based on practical concerns.”
8. Tom Marzullo. “China's Western Expansion Strategy: Part Three,” Men’s News Daily, January 28, 2005. http://www.mensnewsdaily.com/archive/m-n/marzullo/2005/marzullo012805.htm
9. “Drugs, Oil, and War: Preface.” http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~pdscott/dowpref.html
10. “Heroin,” Interpol, January 14, 2006.
http://www.interpol.int/Public/Drugs/heroin/default.asp
11. “Globalization of the Drug Trade,” Sources, April 1999. http://www.unesco.org/most/sourdren.pdf
12. Mitchell Koss. “Speed Sells: A tale of methamphetamine, drug cartels and an amateur chemist named Fester,” LA Wekkly News. February 11[nd]17, 2000.
http://www.laweekly.com/ink/00/12/news-koss.php
13. Bob Huff. “Speed Nation: Methamphetamine, HIV, and Hepatitis,” GMHC Treatment Issues, July/August 2005.
http://www.gmhc.org/health/treatment/ti/ti1978.html
14. “Methamphetamine,” National Drug Threat Assessment, April 2004. http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs8/8731/
15. Lyrics by the Fugs. “New Amphetamine Shriek,” 1966.
16. “Methamphetamine,” Colorado North Metro Task Force, undated.
http://www.nmtf.us/methamphetamine/methamphetamine.htm
17. See note 12 above.
18. See note 12 above.
19. “InfoFacts: Methamphetamine,” National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIDA.
http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/methamphetamine.html
20. See note 13 above.
21. See note 12 above.
22. “Amphetamine-Type Stimulants,” U.N. General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem, June 1998.
http://www.un.org/ga/20special/featur/amphet.htm
23. Michael Scott, “Clandestine Drug Labs,” Center for Problem-Oriented Policing.
http://www.popcenter.org/Problems/problem-druglabs.htm
24. “Drug Intelligence Brief,” U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, Intelligence Division. February 2004.
http://fas.org/irp/agency/doj/dea/product/china0204.pdf
25. “China Fights Surge in Illegal Narcotics Use,” Contra Costa Times, March 2, 2004.
http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/burmanet/20040302/000378.html
26. See note 24 above.
27. Sally Apgar. “Isle ‘Ice’ Flows From California,” Honolulu Star-Bulletin, September 9, 2003.
28. Rogue Pundit, “Random Nature #49,” October 5, 2005.
http://roguepundit.typepad.com/roguepundit/2005/10/index.html
29. “Chemically Synthesized Ephedrine Put into Mass Production in China,” People’s Daily, November 5, 2001.
http://english.people.com.cn/english/200111/05/eng20011105_83931.html
30. “International Narcotics Control Strategy Report,” U.S. Embassy in Moscow, 2003.
http://moscow.usembassy.gov/embassy/section.php?record_id=report_narcotics
31. See note 24 above.
32. “Record Seizure of Ecstasy Stashed in Pineapple Tins from China.” Australian Minister for Justice and Customs, Senator the Hon. Chris Ellison, Media Release, April 7, 2001.
33. “Utopian Pharmacology,” BLTC Research, undated.
http://www.mdma.net/
34. Ibid.
35. Ibid.
36. Ibid.
37. Ibid.
38. Ibid.
39. An article with this title originally appeared undated on the web in Counselor Magazine.
http://www.counselormagazine.com/display_article.asp?aid=Agony_of_Ecstasy.asp
40. “MDMA (Ecstasy),” Executive Office of the President, Office of National Drug Control Policy, February 2004.
http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/mdma/
41. See note 39 above.
42. “The Great Ecstasy Epidemic,” Observer (London), September 2003.
http://mdma.net/club-drugs/global-ecstasy.html
43. Ibid.
44. Ibid.
45. Ibid
46. “Efforts to Control Precursor Chemicals,” International Office of National Drug Control Policy. ONDCP fact sheet, undated.
http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/international/factsht/precursor.html
47. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1999. Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., March 2000.
http://www.usconsulate.org.hk/uscn/narcotic/2000/incsr99.htm
(c)Chapter 7
1. Tashi Tsering, “Policy Implications of Current Dam Projects on Drichu[md]the Upper Yangtze River,” Tibet Justice Center, 2004. http://www.tibetjustice.org/enviro/Harvard_paper_drichu.pdf
2. Lubiao Zhang, “Social Impacts of Large Dams: The China Case,” Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Contributing Paper, World Commission on Dams, undated.
http://www.dams.org/docs/kbase/contrib/opt124.pdf
3. Ainun Nishat and Mahfuz Ullah, “Dammed or Damned,” Daily Star (Bangladesh), December 22, 2000. http://www.dams.org/news_events/media235.htm
4. Henry Chu, “Yellow River Giving China New Sorrow Asia: Overuse, Dry Weather Deplete Waterway Once Known for Flooding,” Los Angeles Times, February 18, 1999.
5. “Confronting Pollution on the Yangtze River,” International Water Power & Dam Construction (52:1) January 2000, 9.
6. Hai-Lun Zhang, ”China Flood Management,” WMO/GWP Associated Programmed on Flood Management. World Meteorological Organization and the Global Water Partnership.
http://www.apfm.info/pdf/case_studies/syn_china.pdf
7. “Large Dams in China,” Chinese National Committee on Large Dams, undated.
http://www.icold-cigb.org.cn/icold2000/largedam.html
8. Ibid.
9. Antoaneta Bezlova, “Corruption Claims Rise Around Three Gorges Dam,” Asia Times, July 26, 2000. http://www.atimes.com/china/BG26Ad01.html
10. Ma Jun, “China’s Water Crisis: Zhongguo Shui Weiji,” Eastbridge, 2004.
http://66.70.211.72/ChinasWaterCrisisMoreInfo.html
11. “China Floods Kill 120, Three Gorges on Alert,” Reuters, September 7, 2004.
http://www.mindfully.org/Water/2004/Three-Gorges-Dam7sep04.htm
12. Jasper Becker, “Part 1: The Death of China’s Rivers,” Asia Times, August 26, 2003.
http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/EH26Ad01.html
13. See note 1 above.
14. “Unsafe Dams Threaten 146 Million Chinese,” Epoch Times, July 12, 2005.
http://www.theepochtimes.com/news/5-7-12/30275.html
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid.
17. “30,000 Chinese Dams Unsafe,” Washington Times, July 15, 2005.
http://www.washtimes.com/upi/20050715-101040-9754r.htm
18. See note 1 above.
19. “Banqiao Dam,” Wikipedia. http://www.answers.com/topic/banqiao-dam
20. Khanh, Tran Tien. “Death of a River: The Mekong River and the Chinese Development Projects Upstream,” February 2003. http://www.vnbaolut.com/deathofariver.html
21. Sandra L. Postel and Aaron T. Wolf, “Dehydrating Conflict,” Foreign Policy, September/October 2001, 60[nd]67.
22. Pearce, Fred. “Where Have All the Fish Gone? The Mighty Mekong Is Drying Up[md]and So Is the River’s Rich Harvest. Vast New Dams in China Could Be to Blame,” Independent (London), April 21, 2004.
23. Jane Perlez, “In Life on the Mekong, China’s Dams Dominate,” New York Times, March 19, 2005.
24. John Vidal, “Dammed and Dying: The Mekong and Its Communities Face a Bleak Future,” Guardian (London), March 25, 2004.
(c)Chapter 8
1. Prema Viswanathan and Florence Tan, "Troubled Waters,” Asian Chemical News (10:456). August 16, 2004, 12[nd]18.
2. Guang-Xin Zhang and Deng Wei, "The Groundwater Crisis and Sustainable Agriculture in Northern China,” Water Engineering & Management, April 13, 2002.
3. “China Says Water Pollution So Severe That Cities Could Lack Safe Supplies,” China Daily, June 28, 2005.
4. Tina Butler, “China’s Imminent Water Crisis,” Mongabay.com, May 30, 2005.
http://news.mongabay.com/2005/0531-tina_butler.html
5. Ibid.
6. “China Economy: Water Crisis,” EIU ViewsWire New York, May 23, 2005.
7. See note 4 above.
8. Nicholas Stein, “Water, Water,” Fortune, October 4, 2004.
9. “The Frequency of Offing Red-Tide Increasing,” Xinhua Agency Report.
http://monkey.ioz.ac.cn/bwg-cciced/english/warnings/warnings.htm
10.Associated Press, “Another Toxic Spill Threatens China,” December 23, 2005.
http://www.sptimes.com/2005/12/23/Worldandnation/Another_toxic_spill_t.shtml
1. “Exposing a Dirty Secret; China’s Pollution,” Economist, July 21, 2001.
12. Wonacott, Peter. “Polluters in China Feel No Pain; But Watchdog Seeks Changes by Holding Officials Accountable,” Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2004.
13. “Toxic Chemicals to Be Phased Out,” China.org.cn, November 11, 2004.
http://www.china.org.cn/english/2004/Nov/111804.htm
14. See note 12 above.
15. See note 1 above.
16. Jianguo Liu and Jared Diamond, “China’s Environment in a Globalizing World,” Nature, June 30, 2005, 1179[nd]1186.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v435/n7046/pdf/4351179a.pdf
17. “Study of Control and Management of Rural Nonpoint Source Pollution,” Asian Development Bank, June 2002. http://www.adb.org/documents/tars/prc/R144_02.pdf
18. See note 16 above.
19. Hamish McDonald, “China’s Unsafe Farming Practices May Be Breeding More Than Pigs,” Sydney Morning Herald, April 7, 2003. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/04/06/1049567564240.html
20. “China Needs to Recycle More,” DC Consulting, May 8, 2002.
http://www.dckonsult.com/news-envir-solidwaste.htm
21. Primary treatment involves the removal of floating and suspended solids, and secondary treatment uses biological methods such as digestion.
22. “Toxic Red Tide Spreads off China,” PlanetArk, May 17, 2004. http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/25118/story.htm
23. “China Reports Huge Losses Caused by Maritime Disasters in 2003,” New China News Agency, February 15, 2004.
24. “Major Red Tides of Toxic Algae Found in China’s Only Inland Sea,” Xinhua News Agency, June 15, 2004. In 2003, China was hit by red tides 119 times, 40 times more than in 2002. Approximately 14,000 square kilometers were affected, devastating marine life, contaminating fish stock, and causing economic losses of more than $5 million. According to an official from the State Oceanic Administration, the increasing incidence of red tides is caused by rising pollution discharged into Chinese sea water in recent years.
25. “China Says Water Pollution So Severe That Cities Could Lack Safe Supplies,” China Daily, June 7, 2005. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-06/07/content_449451.htm
26. “Millions Face Water Shortage in North China, Officials Warn,” New York Times, June 6, 2003.
27. Malin Falkenmark and Carl Widstrand. “Population and Water Resources: A Delicate Balance,” Population Bulletin, Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. 1992.
28. See note 6 above.
29. See note 4 above.
30. See note 6 above.
31. Lester R. Brown and Brian Halweil, “China’s Water Shortage Could Shake World Grain Markets,” Worldwatch Institute, April 22, 1998.
32. “An Unquenchable Thirst,” Economist, June 19, 2004.
33. Water-technology.net, undated. “South-To-North Water Diversion Project, China.” http://www.water-technology.net/projects/south_north/
34. Erik Eckholm, “China to Divert Waters at People-Moving Cost,” New York Times, November 16, 2004.
35. Ibid.
36. H. Yang and A. Zehnder, “China’s Regional Water Scarcity and Implications for Grain Supply and Trade,” Environment and Planning (33:1), January 2001, 79[nd]95.
37. “Beijing's Ground Sinks from Extraction of Ground Water,” Epoch Times. August 6, 2004. http://www.theepochtimes.com/news/4-8-6/22750.html
38. “The Death of China's Rivers. Part 1,” Jasper Becker, Asia Times Online, August 26, 2003. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/EH26Ad01.html
39. See note 2, page 4.
(c)Chapter 9
1. Robert Marquand, “In China, Stresses Spill Over into Riots,” Christian Science Monitor, November 22, 2004. http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/1122/p01s03-woap.html
2. Chris Buckley, “China to ‘Strike Hard’ Against Rising Unrest,” Reuters, January 26, 2006.
http://www.howardwfrench.com/archives/2006/01/27/china_to_strike_hard_against_rising_unrest/
Jonathan Watts. “China Activists ‘Vanish amid Protests,” Guardian, February 25, 2006.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/china/story/0,,1717604,00.html
3. Eva Cheng, “China: New Protests and Riots Worry Beijing,” Green Left Weekly, November 3, 2004.
4. John Chan, “China: Riot in Guangdong Province Points to Broad Social Unrest,” World Socialist Web, November 2004. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/nov2004/chin-n30.shtml
5. “The Chizhou Incident,” undated, EastSouthWestNorth website.
www.zonaeuropa.com/200508brief.htm
6. See note 1 above.
7. “Quarrel over Toll Station Sparks Deadly Riot,” Taipei Times, November 17, 2004.
http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2004/11/17/2003211425
8. Kathy Chen, “Chinese Protests Grow More Frequent, Violent,” Wall Street Journal, May 11, 2004. http://www.chinalaborwatch.org/en/web/article.php?article_id=50225
9. “Pakistan Denies Hand in China Riots,” United Press International, February 12, 1997.
10. See note 1 above.
11. See note 8 above.
12. Wing-yue Trini Leung. “What Can Be Done for the Largest but Deadliest Manufacturing Center in the World?” Testimony before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China. November 2, 2002. http://www.cecc.gov/pages/roundtables/110702/leung.php
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. “Migrant Workers’ Unpaid Wages A Nagging Problem,” China Daily, August 17, 2005.
http://www.china.org.cn/english/2005/Aug/138763.htm
17. “Does China Have 10m Slaves?” Economist, February 1, 2003.
18. Ibid.
19. Mao Tse-tung, “Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan, March 1927,” Modern History Sourcebook. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1927mao.html
20. Carol Divjak, “Rural Protests in China Put Down by Riot Police,” World Socialist website, September 7, 2000. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/sep2000/chin-s07.shtml
21. “Democracy Chinese-Style,” Economist, October 13, 2005.
http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=5028611
22. “Desperate Measures,” Economist, January 26, 2006.
http://www.economist.com/world/displaystory.cfm?story_id=5436968
23. Ibid.
24. See note 20 above.
25. “Struggle for China’s Farmers Endures, Despite Modernisation,” Asia Pacific News, February 27, 2006. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/195259/1/.html
26. This is a term used in China to describe the spoiling of the single children of many families dictated by the one-child policy.
27. Edward Cody, “In Face of Rural Unrest, China Rolls Out Reforms,” Washington Post Foreign Service, January 28, 2003.
28. See note 25 above.
29. Andrea Mandel-Campbell, “Ready for Revolution,” Maclean’s, August 29, 2005.
30. Ibid.
31. Ibid.
32. William Dobson, “Bad News for China’s Autocrats,” New Republic, December 14, 2005. http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=w051212&s=dobson121405
33. See note 29 above.
34. Edward Cody, “A Chinese City’s Rage at the Rich and Powerful Beating of Student Sparks Riot, Looting,” Washington Post Foreign Service, August 1, 2005.
35. Lindsay Beck, “Violence Works Where Peace Failed for China Villages,” Reuters, February 1, 2006.
http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2006/02/01/violence_works_where_peace_failed_for_china_villag es/
36. This belief dates back as far as the era of the Chinese philosopher Mencius (372[nd]289 B.C.). As noted on the web (Chinese Philosophy, Mencius) by Richard Hooker, “Mencius, like Confucius, believed that rulers were divinely placed in order to guarantee peace and order among the people they rule. Unlike Confucius, Mencius believed that if a ruler failed to bring peace and order about, then the people could be absolved of all loyalty to that ruler and could, if they felt strongly enough about the matter, revolt.” http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CHPHIL/MENCIUS.HTM
37. “ China Riots: Silencing Protest Is Not the Answer,” The American Thinker, April 13, 2005.
http://frankwarner.typepad.com/free_frank_warner/2005/04/china_riots_sil.html
38. Patrick Tyler, "In West China, Tensions with Ethnic Muslims Erupt in Riots, Bombings," New York Times, February 28, 1997
39. David Theo Goldberg and John Solomos, eds., A Companion to Racial and Ethnic Studies (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), 495[nd]510. Frank Diko[um]tter quoted.
40. Xinjiang does produce a large share of China's cotton, wool, sugar beets, grapes, and tomatoes.
41. “A decision in Beijing in 1994 to require that all cropland used for construction be offset by land reclaimed elsewhere has helped create the ecological disaster that is now unfolding. [el] The fast-growing coastal provinces, such as Guandong, Shandong, Xheijiang, and Jiangsu, which are losing cropland to urban expansion and industrial construction, are paying other provinces to plow new land to offset their losses. [el] as the northwestern provinces, already suffering from overplowing and overgrazing, plowed ever more marginal land, wind erosion intensified. Now accelerating wind erosion of soil and the resulting land abandonment are forcing people to migrate eastward, not unlike the U.S. westward migration from the southern Great Plains to California during the Dust Bowl years,” Earth Policy Alert, International Erosion Control Association, 2005. http://www.ieca.org/Resources/Article/ArticleDustBowlChina.asp
42. Steppes are large, semiarid grass-covered plains.
43. Tang Fuchun, “Xinjiang, a Natural Reserve Bonanza,” China.org.cn. March 12, 2005. http://www.china.org.cn/english/2005/Mar/122605.htm
44. Oil deposits are estimated at 20.86 billion tons and natural gas deposits at 10.3 trillion cubic meters. “Cleaner Production in China.” http://www.chinacp.com/eng/cpfactories/cpfact_lunnan_oilfield.html
45. “Xinjiang's Oil Output Tops 24 Mln Tons in 2005,” Xinhua News Agency, China.org.cn. January 4, 2006.
46. Chinese news agency Zhongguo Xinwen She, Beijing, January 14, 2003.
47. “Devastating Blows Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang,” Human Rights Watch (17:2c), 2005. http://hrw.org/reports/2005/china0405/china0405text.pdf
48. Ibid.
49. “China's Domestic ‘Terrorists,’” Simon World, August 30, 2004.
http://simonworld.mu.nu/archives/043369.php
50. “The Great Leap West.” Economist, August 26, 2004.
http://www.uygur.org/wunn04/08_26.htm
51. Ibid.
(c)Chapter 10
. “China’s Growing Pains,” Economist, August 21, 2004.
2. “China and the Issue of Communism,” Excerpts from L' Asie et Nous, Jean-Luc Domenach Entretien with Aime[as] Savard (Paris: Descle[as]e de Brouwer, 2001).
http://www.hsstudyc.org.hk/Webpage/Tripod/T134/T134_E08.htm
3. David Lynch, “Looming Pension Crisis in China Stirs Fears of Chaos.” USA Today, April 19, 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2005-04-19-china-social-security_x.htm
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid.
6. “Gouged,” Economist, November 19, 2005.
7. Roberta Lipson, “Investing in China’s Hospitals,” China Business Review, November[nd]December 2004. http://www.chinabusinessreview.com/public/0411/chindex.html
8. Peter Goodman, “Hospitals in China Find Profit in AIDS: Patients Pressured to Pay for Extra Tests, Treatments,” Washingtonpost.com, November 8, 2005.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/07/AR2005110701671.html
9. “Keeping China Healthy,” China Business Review, November[nd]December 2004.
10. Ibid.
11. “China’s Health Insurance System in Transformation,” International Social Security Review (57), March 2004.
12. “Locked Doors: The Human Rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS in China,” Human Rights Watch (15:7c), August 2003.
13. Xiong Lei, “How SARS Could Save a Nation,” New Statesmen, January 1, 2005.
http://www.newstatesman.com/200501010018
14. “Gouged,” Economist, November 19, 2005.
15. Melinda Liu, “The Flimsy Wall of China,” Newsweek, October 31, 2005.
16. “China’s Health Care Crisis,” China Challenges weblog, July 29, 2005.
http://chinachallenges.blogs.com/my_weblog/2005/07/chinas_health_c.html
17. “China Focus: Poor, Rich Disparities Affect Women, Children’s Health Care,” People’s Daily Online, April 8, 2005. http://english.people.com.cn/200504/08/eng20050408_180087.html
18. Nancy Riley, “China’s Population: New Trends and Challenges,” Population Bulletin, June 2004. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3761/is_200406/ai_n9455376/pg_2
19. Ibid.
20. Tim Johnson, “China Rising: The Boom’s High Cost: China’s Heavy Pollution Is Sparking Riots,” Knight Ridder, July 20, 2005. http://www.realcities.com/mld/krwashington/12179835.htm
21. Jim Yardley. “Rivers Run Black and Chinese Die of Cancer,” New York Times, September 12, 2004. http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/develop/quality/2004/0912chinapollution.htm
22. Howard French, “Anger in China Rises over Threat to Environment,” New York Times, July 19, 2005.
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/19/international/asia/19china.html?ex=1279425600&en=2319c5dae21c9ab8&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss
23. See note 21 above.
24. See note 22 above.
25. Lindsay Beck, “Violence Works Where Peace Failed for China Villages,” Reuters, February 1, 2006.
http://www.boston.com/news/world/asia/articles/2006/02/01/violence_works_where_peace_failed_for_china_villag es/
26. “Entertaining or Subverting?: Chinese Television Tries to Go Global,” Angry Chinese Blogger, April 10, 2006. [The Angry Chinese Blogger may be accessed at: http://angrychineseblogger.blog-city.com/ ]
27. Nicholas Eberstadt, “The Future of AIDS,” Foreign Affairs, November/ December 2002.
http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20021101faessay9990/nicholas-eberstadt/the-future-of-aids.html
28. Ibid.
29. Ibid.
30. Ibid.
31. Ibid.
32. Ibid.
33. Ibid.
34. Lora Sabin, presentation, “ Corporate Responsibility in a World of AIDS: The Economic Case for Investing Now,” Socioeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS, Center for International Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, November 5, 2003.
35. “People’s Republic of China Continuing Abuses under a New Leadership[md]Summary of Human Rights Concerns,” Amnesty International
http://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/china/document.do?id=566EE24E856F154280256DC8003CDDB6
36. “AIDS in China: Anatomy of an Epidemic,” Economist, July 28, 2005.
http://www.economist.com/World/asia/displayStory.cfm?story_id=4223578
37. “HIV/AIDS: China’s Titanic Peril: 2001 Update of the AIDS Situation and Needs Assessment Report,” UN Theme Group on HIV/AIDS in China, June 2002.
38. Alice Park, “China’s Secret Plague: How One U.S. Scientist Is Struggling to Help the Government Face Up to an Exploding AIDS Crisis,” Time, July 19, 2004.
http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/article/0,13673,501031215-557111,00.html
39. “Blood Safety and Donation: A Global View,” World Health Organization Fact Sheet 279, revised June 2005. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs279/en/print.html
40. See note 37 above.
41. See note 37 above.
42. See note 12 above.
43. See note 12 above.
44. See note 12 above.
45. Joshua Kurlantzick, “China’s Drug Problem and Looming HIV Epidemic,” World Policy Journal, June 2002. http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/articles/wpj02-2/Kurlantzick.pdf
46. See note 36 above.
47. “Life on China’s Edge,” Economist, September 14, 1996.
http://www.burmalibrary.org/reg.burma/archives/199609/msg00079.html
48. Zunyou Wu, M.D. Ph.D., et al., “Community-Based Trial to Prevent Drug Use among Youths in Yunnan, China,” American Journal of Public Health (92:12), December 2002, 1952[nd]1957.
http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/abstract/92/12/1952
49. See note 12 above.
50. See note 12 above.
51. B. Zhang et al., “A Survey of Men Who Have Sex with Men: Mainland China,” American Journal of Public Health (90:12), December 2000, 1949[nd]1950. See also http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=25095
52. Nicholas Eberstadt, “The Future of AIDS,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2002.
http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20021101faessay9990/nicholas-eberstadt/the-future-of-aids.html 53. See note 12 above.
54. See note 36 above.
55. See note 12 above.
56. See note 38 above.
57. “Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shenzhen, China, Rarely Use Condoms to Prevent Spread of HIV,” HIV/AIDS News, May 25, 2005. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=25095
58. Gill Bates, Jennifer Chang, and Sarah Palmer, “China’s HIV Crisis,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 2002. http://www.brookings.edu/views/articles/gill/20020301.pdf
59. Ibid.
60. See note 45 above.
61. See note 12 above.
(c)Chapter 11
1. This rather sobering observation was offered to me as a young graduate student at Harvard University when I interviewed Harvard’s Banfield about the origins of ideology for my first book, The Policy Game (New York: Wiley, 1984).
2. Martin Crutsinger. “U.S. Vows to Get Tough with China on Trade Laws,” Seattle Times, February 14, 2006.
3. Lawrence H. Summers. “The United States and the Global Adjustment Process,” speech at the Third Annual Stavros S. Niarchos Lecture, Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C. March 23, 2004. (Emphasis added)
http://www.iie.com/publications/papers/paper.cfm?researchid=200
4. Jonathan Watts, “China Vows to Create ‘New Socialist Countryside,’” Guardian (London), March 3, 2006. http://www.guardian.co.uk/guardianweekly/outlook/story/0,,1721546,00.html
5. “Milestone Year for China's Economic Development,” Blackwell Publishing, March 2006.
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/press/pressitem.asp?ref=693
6. “China's Parliament Endorses Major Economic Policy Changes,” People’s Daily Online, March 14, 2006. http://english.people.com.cn/200603/14/eng20060314_250462.html
7. “China President Hu Jintao Calls for More Sustainable Economic Growth,” Xinhua Financial Network News, February 23, 2006.
8. Clifford Coonan. “China Slaps Tax on Chopsticks to Save Trees,” Independent (London), March 23, 2006.
9. Robert Marquand. “A ‘Green’ Building Rises amid Beijing Smog,” Christian Science Monitor, April 3, 2006.





The Coming China Wars

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