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Memet Emin
06-09-07, 11:56
Tibbiy Mektepni Putturgen Oqughuchilarning Amirikigha Kilish Yolliri

Memet Emin

Amirikidiki Tibbiy Mektep Tuzumi

Amirikida Tibbiy Mektep (Medical School) da oqush üchün ottura mektepni püttürgendin kéyin aldi bilen 4 yilliq uniwérsitétni püttürüp bakalawrliq unwani élishi kérek. Adette melum kespni oqughan oqughuchi andin tébbiy mektepke kireleydu deydighan éniq belgilime bolmisimu, biraq, tébbiy mektepke kirmekchi bolghan oqughuchilar kem dégende choqum tebii pende oqughan bolushi kérek, undin bashqa méditsina bilen munasiwetlik penlerde yeni biologiye, ximiye, bioximiye, mikrobiologiye qatarliq penlerde oqughan oqughuchilarning tébbiy mektepke kirish éhtimalliqi yuqiri bolidu. Shundaqla uniwérsitétni püttürgen netijisi alahide yaxshi bolush kérek, mektipi yaki oqutquchisi körsitishi kérek.

Amérikida Tébbiy Mektep (Medical School) adette 4 yilliq bolup, bashta oqughan 4 yilni qoshqanda, doxturluq mektepni püttürüp chiqish üchün jemi 8 yil waqit kétidu. Oqush püttürüp chiqqanlar biwasite doktorluq yeni MD (Doctor of Medicine, 医�*�博士) unwani alidu. Shunga Amérikida tébbiy mektepning bakalawrliq, magistérliq unwani yoq. Tébbiy Mektepte oqup chiqsila PhD bilen barawer bolghan MD unwani alidu. Tébbiy Mektepni püttürgen oqughuchilar oqush püttürgendin kéyin Amérikida bir tutash élinidighan USMLE (United States Medical License Examination, 美国医生执照考试) dep atilidighan imtihanni bérip, yaxshi netijige érishkendin kéyin, birer doxturxana tépip, 3 yildin 4 yilghiche balinist doxturi (residency, 住院医生) bolup ishligendin kéyin, andin resmiy doxtur bolup, musteqil xizmet qilalaydu.

Amérikida aliy mektepni püttürgenlerge meyli qaysi kesipte oqughan bolsun bir tutash xizmet teqsimati qilinmaydu, xizmetni pütünley ozi tapidu. Doxturluq mektipini püttürgenlermu residency bolush üchün USMLE dégen imtihandin yaxshi netijige iriship, doxturxanini özi tépishi kérek, bolmisa doxturluq mektipini oqup püttürgen bilen doxtur bolalamaydu.

Amérikida tébbiy mektepni püttürgenler yene oqumaqchi bolsa, doxturluq bilen munasiwetlik birer kespni tallap yene 3~5 yil oqusa PhD unwani alidu. Bu chagha bu oqughuchi qosh doktor unwanliq yeni MD, PhD bolup chiqidu. Bundaqlar köpinche hallarda kelgüside doxturluq qilishni emes, belki tetqiqat bilen yaki tébbiy mekteplerde oqutquchiliq bilen shughullinishni meqset qilghanlar hésablinidu.

Amirikining Bashqa Döletlerde Tibbiy Mekteplirini Püttürgen Oqughuchilargha Tutqan Siyasiti

Amirika Junggo qatarliq nurghun döletlerning Tibbiy Mekteplirini toluq étirap qilidighan bolup, u mekteplerde oqughan oqughuchilarnimu oxshashla doktor yeni MD (Doctor of Medicine, 医�*�博士) dep tonuydu. Chet elde tébbiy mektepni püttürgen oqughuchilar eger Amérikigha kélip doxtur bolmaqchi bolsa tamamen mumkin. Biraq, shert yuqirida dep ötkendek Amérikida tébbiy mektepni püttürgen oqughichilargha oxshash USMLE dégen imtihandin ötüp yaxshi netijige érishishi we doxturxana tépip 3 yildin 4 yil residency (住院医生) bolushi kérek. Eger shundaq qilalisa oxshashla doxtur bolalaydu.

Junggoda, Hindistanda, Pakistanda we bashqa munasiwetlik döletlerde tébbiy mektepni püttürgen köpligen oqughuchilar, Amérikida qayta tébbiy mektepte oqumayla esli dölettiki diplom bilen doxtur bolup ishlimekte. Hetta bezi Amérikida tughulup chong bolghan Hindistanliq we Pakistanliqlar Amérikida Tébbiy Mektepte oqushni tes we qimmet körüp, toluq ottura mektepni püttürüpla esli dölitige bérip, özining til alahidilikidin paydilinip, 4 yil oqup, Amérikida 1, 2 yil imtihan’gha teyyarliq qilipla USMLE dégen imtihandin ötüp, Amérikiliqlar 8 yil oqup 300 ming dollargha yéqin pul xejlep doxtur bolsa, ular 4 yil oqup bir nechche ming dollar pul bilenla doxtur bolmaqta.

Junggoda tébbiy mektepni püttürgen oqughuchilar til jehette sel qinalghanliqi üchün, USMLE dégen imtihandin ötüshke ketken waqit sel uzun bolup, köpinche kishiler adette Amérikigha kélip aldi bilen tetqiqat xizmiti bilen shughullinip, 5 -10 yil xizmet qilip, til ötkilidin ötkendin kéyin andin USMLE ge imtihan bérip doxtur bolidu. Biraq, men bilidighan bir Uyghur qiz Shinjang Tébbiy Uniwérsitétini 1996-yili püttürgen bolup, hazir Amérikida tébbiy mektepni qayta oqumayla USMLE dégen imtihandin ela netije élip, bir chong doxturxanida residency (住院医生) bolup ishlimekte. Alla buyrisa yene 3 yildin kéyin Shinjang Tébbiy Uniwérsitétining diplomi bilen Amérikida resmiy doxtur bolghan tunji Uyghur bolup qalidu.

Beziler Amérikida Junggoning doxturluq oqush tarixini étirap qilmaydiken dégen qarashta. Méningche bu bir mujimel qarash. Amérikining doxturluq tüzümi nahayiti mukemmel bolghachqa, meyli Junggodin kelgen doxtur bolsun we yaki bashqa herqandaq dölettin kelgen doxtur bolsun, Amérikigha kelgendin kéyin biwasite doxtur bolalmaydu. Bu hergizmu u kishining doktorluk unwani yeni MD unwanini étirap qilmighanliq emes. Eger u kishi yuqirida dep ötkendek Amérikining USMLE dégen imtihanidin ötüp, 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) ni tügetse, yenila doxtur bolalaydu. Eger Amérika chet elning doxturluq oqushini étirap qilmidi dégende, bashqa dölette doxturluq oqughan kishi Amérikida doxturluq mektepte oqumay turup, doxtur bolushi mumkin bolmaytti.

Chet elde bashqa kespte oqughan oqughuchilargha nisbeten, burun qaysi unwan alghan bolsa shu unwan boyiche étirap qilinidu. Shunga peqet bashqa dölette tébbiy mekteplerde oqughan chet ellik oqughuchilarla Amérikida unwan jehette alahide paydigha érishken dep qarashqa bolidu.

Bashqa Döletlerde Tébbiy Mektepni Püttürüp Amérikigha Kélishni Arzu Qilghan Oqughuchilarning Amérikigha Kélish Yolliri

Eger Junggoda Doxturluq Mektipini püttürgenler Amérikigha kélip doxturluq kespining magistérliq kespide oqumaqchi bolsa qandaq qilishi kérek dégen mesilige kelsek, deslepte dep ötkendek Amérikida doxturluq saheside magistérliq unwani yoq. Doxturluq Mektepni püttürgen herqandaq adem doktor yeni MD hésablinidu. Undin bashqa Amérikida doxturluq kespi, kirish eng qiyin, oqush puli eng qimmet bolghan kesplerning biri bolup, chet elliklerning doxturluq mektipige kirishi nahayti qiyin, bolupmu Junggo pasporti bilen Doxturluq Mektepke kirish asasen mumkin emes.

Undaqta Junggoda Doxturluq Mektipini püttürgenler Amérikigha kélip oqumaqchi bolsa qandaq qilish kérek dégende, Junggoda alghan bakalawrluq diplomini MD dep qarap, doxturluq bilen munasiwetlik (Bioscience or health science, 生物科�*�) penler dairiside biwasite PhD ge iltimas qilsa bolidu. Beziler bilmesliktin magistérliqqa iltimas qilip, Amérikigha kélip magistérliq unwanini alghan bolsimu, biraq, kéyinche yene burunqi MD unwanini ishlitidu, bolmisa keynige chékingenlik bolidu. Men bilidighan bezi Junngoluqlar Junggoda Doxturluq Mektipini püttürgendin kéyin, gerche dorigerlik yaki irsiyet qatarliq penlerde magistérliq oqughan bolsimu, biraq Amérikigha kelgendin kéyin yenila MD dep ishlitiwatidu. Magistér MD din töwen turidighan bolup, Amérikida bérilidighan maash ölchimimu MD din töwen bolidu.

Shunga Junggoda tébbiy mektepni püttürgenler eger Amérikigha kélip oqumaqchi bolsa, eger shert-sharaiti toshqan ehwal astida, özini MD dep hésablap biwasite PhD gha iltimas qilsa bolidu.

Amérikida xizmet tépish asan bolghan doxturluq bilen munasiwetlik kespler Biochemistry (生物化�*�), Biology(生物�*�), Genetics 遗��*�*�, Histology (组织�*�), Immunology (免疫�*�), Microbiology (微生物�*�), Bacteriology ( 细菌�*�), Virology ( 病毒�*�), Molecular Biology (分�*�生物�*�), Molecular Biophysics (分�*�生物物理�*�), Pathology ( 病理�*�) , Pathophysiology ( 病理生理�*�), Pharmacology (药理�*�), Physiology (生理�*�).

Eger siz Junggoda yuqiriqi kesplerde oqup PhD alghan bolsingiz, Amérikigha kélishingiz asan’gha toxtaydu, yaki Amérikigha kélip yuqiriqi kesplerde PhD oqusingiz oqush püttürgendin kéyin xizmet tépish, Amérikida turup qélish yeni Green Card (Lü Ka) élishingiz qiyin emes.

Eger siz Junggoda Doxturluq Mektipide oqup, Amérikigha xizmet qilish üchün kelmekchi bolsingiz, bumu tamamen mumkin. Buning ikki xil yoli bar bolup, biri J1 wiza bilen Visiting Scholar (Jiao huan xue zhe, 交换�*�者) yaki Post-doc (博士后) bolup kélish, yene biri H-1B wiza yeni xizmet wizisi bilen post-doc bolup kélish. Bulardiki asasliq shertlerning biri En’glizchide yaxshi bolush (biraq TOEFL telep qilinmaydu, éghiz tili yaxshi bolsa bolidu), ikkinchisi Junggoda doxturluq tetqiqat xizmiti bilen shughullinip baqqan, shundaqla maqale élan qilip baqqan bolush kérek. Birer mukapat élip baqqan bolsa téximu yaxshi. Bu ikki xil wiza ichide J1 wizini élish bir az asan bolup, bu wizigha iltimas qilghanlar san cheklimisige uchrimaydu, béridighan maash töwen. H-1B wiza sel tes bolup, san cheklimisi bar, béridighan maashi adette J1 gha nisbeten sel yuqiri. Amérikida oqush püttürgen chet elliklermu bir mezgil mushu wiza bilen Amérikida turup xizmet qilidu.

Amérikidiki Aliy Mektep we Tetqiqat Organliri Néme Üchün Bashqa Döletlerde Oqush Püttürgen MD yaki PhD larga Muhtaj?

Amérikida oxshimighan unwan we oxshimighan kesptikilerge bérilidighan maashta belgilik ölchem bolup, Amérikida bakalawr unwani alghanlarning bashlinish maashi adette 30 mingdin 50 dollar ariliqida bolidu. Magistérliq unwani alghanlarning bashlinish maashi adette 50 ming dollardin 80 ming dollar ariliqida bolidu. PhD unwani alghanlarning bashlinish maashi adette 70 mingdin 120 ming dollar ariliqida bolidu. MD unwani alghanlar USMLE imtihanidin ötüp 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) bolush jeryanida yiligha 40 mingdin 60 ming dollar maash alidu. Resmiy doxtur bolghandin kéyin deslepki maashi adette 120 ming dollar etrapida bolidu, bir nechche yildin kéyin bezi kesplerning doxturliri yiligha yérim milyondin 1 milyon ariliqida maash alidu. Birnechche milyon maash alidighan doxturlarmu az emes. Elwette oxshimighan shitat we sheherler arisida belgilik perqler bar.

J1 wiza bilen Amérikigha kelgen chet elde MD yaki PhD unwani alghanlargha béridighan maash adette yiligha 18 ming dollardin 24 ming dollar etrapida bolidu. H-1B wiza bilen Amérikigha kelgen chet elde MD yaki PhD unwani alghanlargha bérilidighan maash adette yiligha 34 ming dollardin 55 ming dollar etrapida bolidu.

Amérikida adem alidighan organlargha adem élishta aldi bilen Amérikiliq yaki Amérikida mengülük turush hoquqi barlarni yeni «green card»i barlarni élish telep qilinidighan bolup, chet ellikni yallap ishlitishning shertliri töwendikilerdin ibaret. (1) Yuqiri sewiyelik töwen maashliq kishiler. Yeni béridighan maashi töwen bolghanchqa Amérikidiki oxshash melumatliq kishiler bu xizmetni qilishni xalimighan bolushi kérek. (2) Amérikida kem uchraydighan qol hünerwen yaki yoqap kétish éhtimali bolghan kesp bilen shughallan’ghuchilar. (3) Amérikiliqlar qilishni xalimaydighan éghir, japaliq, xeterlik xizmetler bilen shughullan’ghuchilar. (4) Amérikida shu kesp bilen shughullinidighan adem yétishmeywatqan kesptikiler, mesilen séstiralar.

Amérikida doxturluq mektepni püttürgen yaki munasiwetlik penler boyiche PhD unwani alghanlarning köpinchisi yuqirida dep ötken chet elliklerge béridighan töwen maashqa ishlimigenliki üchün, Amérikidiki nurghun uniwérsitétlar we tetqiqat organliri her yili köplep chet eldin adem élishqa muxtaj. Aliy mektep we tetqiqat organlirining köpinchisi ixtisadiy kirim keltürmeydighan hem Amérikining dölet ghezinisidin kelgen pul bilen tetqiqat élip baridighan organ bolghanchqa, Amérika hökümitining ulargha alahide siyasiti bar, yeni ular töwen maashliq chet el mutexesislirini yallap ishlitish hoquqidin alahide behrimen bolidighan orunlar hésaplinidu. Adettiki ixtisadiy kirim keltüridighan organlar yaki bazarliq kesplerning maash ölchimi yuqiri bolghachqa, bu xildiki xizmetlerni qilishni xalaydighan kishiler köp, riqabet küchlük, shunga bu organlarning chet eldin adem yallap ishlitishining hajiti yoq, yeni ular bermekchi bolghan maashqa Amérikidin köplep adem tépilidu.

Memet Emin
06-09-07, 12:00
Tébbiy Penler Saheside Amérikigha Kélip Post-Doc Bolush Yolliri

Memet Emin

Amérikining Post-doc Tüzümi

Amérikida tébbiy penler boyiche doktorluq (MD yaki PhD) unwani alghan oqughuchilar bolupmu kelgüside tetqiqat we yaki oqu-oqutush ishliri bilen shughullinishni meqset qilghan oqughuchilar kelgüsige asas sélish üchün, aldin bilen birer tébbiy tetqiqat ornida post-doc bolup ishleydu. Adette post-docning waqti oxshash bir tetqiqat ornida eng köp bolghanda 3 yil bolup, bezide orun almashqandin kéyin yene 3 yil post-doc bolghili bolidu, biraq post-docqa bérilidighan maash nisbeten töwen bolghanliqi üchün, köpinche post-doc bolghanlar bir qarar yeni 3 yil post-doc bolghandin kéyin resmiy xizmet tépishning yolini qilidu. Post-doc bolghanlar adette birer projekitni chöridigen halda mexsus tetqiqat bilen shughullinip, shu sahade muntizim terbiyilinidu (get a special training in a specific field).

Amérikidiki Tébbiy Tetqiqat Orunlirining Qisqiche Ehwali

Tébbiy penler boyiche post-doc bolghanlar adette tetqiqat tejribixanlirida (research lab) tetqiqat élip baridighan bolup, bu tejribixanilar 3 xil oxshimighan türdiki tejribixanilarni öz ichige alidu. Birinchisi Amérikining her qaysi shitat we sheherlirige tarqalghan shexsiy we hökümetning uniwérsitétliridiki tébbiy tetqiqat tejribixaniliri bolup, bu xildiki tejribixanilar Amérikidiki tébbiy tetqiqat tejribixanilarning mutleq köp qismini igileydu. Ikkinchisi Amérika Fediral Hökümetning tébbiy tetqiqat tejribixaniliri bolup, bu asasliqi Amérikining Döletlik Saqliqni Saqlash Instituti (National Institute of Health or NIH) qarimiqidiki tejribixanilarni öz ichige alidu. Üchinchisi Amérikidiki ximiye, dora we tébbiy üsküniler shirketliri qarimiqidiki tetqiqat tejribixanilardin ibaret.

Yuqiriqi üch xil tejribixana ichide, aldinqi ikki xildiki tejribixana asasen Amérika hökümitining Döletlik Saqliqni Saqlash Instituti (National Institute of Health or NIH) din alghan tetqiqat xirajitige (research grant) tayinip tetqiqat élip baridighan bolup, ixtisadiy kirim keltürmeydighan orunlar hésablinidu. Ularning tetqiqat netijisidin pütün jem’iyet heqsiz paydilinidu. Bu tejribixanilarning tetqiqat xirajiti cheklik bolghanliqi üchün, post-doclargha we bashqa xizmetchilirige béridighan maashi nisbeten töwen, shunga kirish nisbeten asan. Bu xildiki tejribixanilarda tetqiqat bilen shughullinidighanlarning köp qismi dunyda eng dangliq bolghan tébbiy tetqiqatchilar we alimlar bolup, özlirini tébbiy tetqiqat ishliri üchün béghishliwetkenler. Tarixta tébbiy penler boyiche Nobél Mukapatigha Amérikiliq tébbiy alimlarning mutleq köp qismi mushu xildiki tébbiy tetqiqat tejribixanilarda tetqiqat bilen shughullan’ghanlar bolup, ularning köp qismi pul üchün emes belki xizmetke bolghan qizghinliqi üchün bu xil xizmetlerni tallighanlar.

Shirket qarimiqidiki tébbiy tetqiqat tejribixanilirining tetqiqat xirajitining köp qismi shirkettin biwasite kélidighan bolup, ular nisbeten ixtisadi kirim keltüridighan orunlar hésablinidu. Ularning tetqiqat netijisi köpinche hallarda sélin’ghan meblighidin nechche hesse yuqiri payda keltüridu. Shunga xizmetchilirige béridighan maash ölchimi nisbeten yuqiri, riqabet küchlük bolup kirish nisbeten sel qiyin.

Amérikidiki tébbiy tetqiqat tejribixanilirining chong-kichikliki shu tejribixanining bashliqi bolghan proféssorning NIH din alghan tetqiqat xirajitining az-köplüki bilen biwasite munasiwetlik bolup, adette her bir tejribixanida 3 tin 20 ge qeder adem ishleydu. Köpinche tejribexanilarda 6, 7 adem bolidu. Bularning ichide adette yérimi dégüdek post-doc bolup, qalghanliri Proféssor, Dotsént, Yardemchi Professor(léktor), Tetqiqatchi, Kandidat tetqiqatchi, Yardemchi tetqiqatchi, Téxnik qatarliqlarni öz ichige alidu. Bir tejribixanida bularning hemmisining bolushi shert emes, biraq kem dégende bir yaki birdin yuqiri Proféssor yaki Dotsént bolushi kérek.

Amérikida tetqiqat tejribixanilar gerche musteqil organ bolmisimu, biraq, adem élishta, shu tejribixana bashliqi bolghan proféssor toluq hoquqqa ige. Tejribexanigha adem élishta yuqirining testiqini élish hajetsiz. Ular özige yarighan herqandaq ademni ishlitishke hoquqluq. Bu proféssorlar eger birer sewebtin bashqa orun’gha yötkilip ketmekchi bolsa, özige tewe bolghan tetqiqat xirajitini birge élip kételeydu.

Tébbiy Penler Boyiche Doctorluq Unwani Alghanlarning Amérikigha Kélip Post-Doc Bolushta Hazirlashqa Tégishlik Shertler

Amérikigha kélip post-doc (博士后) bolush üchün, aldi bilen méditsina saheside doktorluq unwani (MD, Doctor of Medicine, 医*博士) élish, yaki bolmisa Biochemistry (生物化*), Biology(生物*), Genetics (遗**), Histology (组织*), Immunology (免疫*), Microbiology (微生物*), Bacteriology ( 细菌*), Virology ( 病毒*), Molecular Biology (分*生物*), Molecular Biophysics (分*生物物理*), Pathology ( 病理*) , Pathophysiology ( 病理生理*), Pharmacology (药理*), Physiology (生理*) qatarliq penler boyiche doktorluq (PhD) unwani élish kérek.

Amérikigha kélip Post-doc bolush üchün In’glizchide belgilik sewiyege yétish kérek. Post-doc bolush üchün gerche TOEFL imtihani telep qilinmisimu, biraq, wiza élishta we kelgüsi xizmet jeryanida In’gliz tili kem bolsa bolmaydighan muhim wasite bolup, belgilik sewiyege yetmigenlerning wiza alalishi we kelgüsi xizmetning höddisidin chiqishi qiyin.

Amirkigha kilip Post-doc bolush uchun towendiki texnikilarning kop qismi bilen, hich bolmighanda bir qismi bilen tonush bolush kirek.

1. Laboratory Routines: Such as making molar solution (buffer); pH, osmolarity measurement; cell culture including cell throw, cell subculture, and cell freeze; using different kind of microscopy; etc.

2. Working with animal: mostly mouse, rat and rabbit.

3. Electrophoresis: A process by which molecules (such as proteins, DNA, or RNA fragments) can be separated according to size and electrical charge by applying an electric current to them. Each kind of molecule travels through the medium at a different rate, depending on its electrical charge and molecular size.

4. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA): a sensitive method for serodiagnosis of specific infectious diseases; an in vitro competitive binding assay in which an enzyme and its substrate serve as the indicator system rather than a radioactive substance; in positive tests, the two yield a colored or other easily recognizable substance; tests are made in wells in polystyrene or other material to which immunoglobulins or antigenic (viral or other) preparations readily adsorb; the enzyme is linked to known immunoglobulin (or antigen) and in positive tests remains in the well as part of the antigen-antibody complex available to react with its substrate when added.

5. Flow Cytometry: A method of measuring fluorescence from stained cells that are in suspension and flowing through a narrow orifice, usually in combination with one or two lasers to activate the dyes; used to measure cell size, number, viability, and nucleic acid content with the aid of acridine orange, Kasten's fluorescent Feulgen stain, ethidium bromide, trypan blue, and other selected staining reagents

6. Gene transfer -- incorporation of new DNA into and organism's cells, usually by a vector such as a modified virus.

7. Immunofluorescence Staining: Using specific primary antibody and secondary antibody conjugated fluorescence dye to label certain protein or receptor of the cells.

8. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): is the process of detection of antigens in tissue using antibodies. The antibodies can be polyclonal or monoclonal in origin, the monoclonal ones being more specific in nature. Immunohistochemistry is widely used for diagnosis of cancers.

9. Immunoprecipitation (IP) -- the phenomenon of aggregation of sensitized antigen upon addition of specific antibody (precipitin) to antigen in solution.

10. Immunoelectrophoresis: A kind of precipitin test in which the components of one group of immunological reactants (usually a mixture of antigens) are first separated on the basis of electrophoretic mobility in agar or other medium, the separated components then being identified, by means of the technique of double diffusion, on the basis of precipitates formed by reaction with components of the other group of reactants (antibodies)

11. Northern blotting analysis -- a technique for transferring electrophoretically resolved RNA segments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter paper sheet via capillary action.

12. Southern blotting analysis -- a technique for transferring electrophoretically resolved DNA segments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter paper sheet via capillary action; the DNA segment of interest is probed with a radioactive, complementary nucleic acid and its position is determined by autoradiography.

13. Western blotting analysis -- a technique used to identify a specific protein; the probe is a radioactively labeled antibody raised against the protein in question.

14. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -- a technique for copying the complementary strands of a target DNA molecule simultaneously for a series of cycles until the desired amount is obtained.

15. Data Analysis: Using computerized data analysis system to analysis experimental data.

Yéngidin post-doc bolghanlar, birer tejribixanigha yéngidin kirgendin kéyin, adette kem dégende1, 2 ay bashqilargha egiship tejribe ishleydighan bolup, melum mezgillik yéngi muhit bilen tonushush we maslishish imkaniyitigha ige. Shunga bezi inchike tereplerde bek ensirep kétishning hajiti yoq.

Amérikigha Kélip Post-Doc Bolushqa Iltimas Qilishning Qedem Basquchliri

Doxturluq mektipide oqughan yaki munasiwetlik penler boyiche doktorluq unwani alghanlar, Amérikigha kélip tetqiqat bilen shughullanmaqchi yaki post-doc (博士后) bolmaqchi bolsa, töwendiki bir nechche qedem basquchlar arqiliq közligen meqsitige yételishi tamamen mumkin.

(1) Aldi bilen özining qisqiche ehwalini (CV) ölchemlik qilip yézip chiqing. Yazghan CV da eng yuqiri oqush tarixi (Highest Education), xizmet tejribisi (Working Experience including Clinical and Research Experience), tepsiliy téxnikisi (Detailed Techniques, what you can do), élan qilghan maqalisi (Publications including conference), érishken mukapat yaki tetqiqat fondi (Awards and or research grants), 3 körsetküchi (3 References) qatarliq mezmunlarni öz ichige élishi kérek. Undin bashqa özining néme meqsiti barliqi toghrisida bir parche xet (cover letter) yézip teyyarlang. “Cover Letter” sampillirini http://recruit.sciencemag.org/feature/advice/letters.shl din körüng.

(2) Andin kéyin özingiz qiziqidighan yaki kelgüsi shughullanmaqchi bolghan dairde birer proféssor we yaki tejribixana téping. Tapqan proféssor eng yaxshisi resmiy proféssor yaki eng kem dégende dotsént (Associate Professor) bolushi, hemde choqum tejribixana bashliqi bolushi yeni bu proféssorning özining tetqiqat tejribixanisi bolushi kérek.

(3) Shu tapqan proféssorgha éléktronluq xet (e-mail) ewetip özining meqsitini uqturush kérek. CV ni adette xetke chatma (attachment) qilip ewetidighan bolup, tunji qétimliq xetke qoshup ewetsimu bolidu, kéyin ewetsimu bolidu. Köpinche kishiler proféssorning adem alidighan almaydighanliqini bilmigechke, aldi bilen özining meqsitini ipadileydighan «Target Letter» ewetip körüp béqip, proféssordin jawab kelgendin kéyin andin CV ni chatma (attachment) qilip ewetidu. Qarshi terepning adem alidighan-almaydighanliqini bilmigen ehwal astida, bir-ikki proféssorgha xet yézip qoyupla toxtap qalsingiz, közligen meqsitingizge hergizmu yételmeysiz. Shunga érinmey köprek proféssor tépip, xet yézip turushingiz kérek.

(4) Eger birer proféssor sizni élishqa maqul bolup, siz bilen téléfon arqiliq körüshmekchi bolsa, puxta teyyarliq qilip, öz qabiliyitingizni toluq jariy qildurushingiz kérek. Bilidighan nersingizni choqum bilimen deng, yalghan gep qilip, po étishtin saqlining, biraq alahide kemter bolupmu ketmeng. Özingizge ishench qiling.

(5) Birer proféssorr sizni élishni qarar qilghandin kéyin, kéreklik resmiyetlerning köp qismini sizni almaqchi bolghan proféssor Amérikining Köchmenler Idarisi arqiliq Amérikida püttürüp, sizge yollap béridu.

(6) Siz qarshi terepning munasiwetlik resmiyetlirini tapshurup élishning aldi-keynide, wiza élishqa puxta teyyarliq qiling. Adette post-doc bolghuchilardin alahide imtihan élinmisimu, biraq til jehette belgilik sewiyege yétish telep qilinidu. Eger siz til jehette belgilik sewiyege yetmigen bolsingiz, wiza bergüchi teripidin ret qilinishingiz mumkin.

(7) Post-docqa bérilidighan wiza adette J-1 we H-1B dep ikki xil bolup, bezide sizni almaqchi bolghan proféssor sizdin qaysi wiza bilen Amérikigha kélisen dep soraydu. J-1 wiza bilen Amérikigha kelgenlerge adette yiligha 18 ming dollardin 24 ming dollar etrapida maash béridighan bolup (elwette bezi shitat we bezi tejribixanilarda uningdin yuqiri bérishimu mumkin), alahide san cheklimisi yoq, bu xil wizini élish sel asan. H-1B viza bilen Amérikigha kelgenlerge bérilidighan maash adette yiligha 34 ming dollardin 55 ming dollar etrapida bolup, her yili belgilik san cheklimisi bar, bu xil wizigha iltimas qilghanlar sel köp bolup, riqabet küchlük, élish sel qiyin. Shunga siz özingizning ehwaligha asasen jawab bersingiz bolidu.

Wizigha munasiwetlik matériyallarni töwendiki tor betlerge kirip körüng:

http://travel.state.gov/visa/visa_1750.html

http://travel.state.gov/visa/temp/types/types_1271.html

http://uscis.gov/graphics/services/visas.htm

http://travel.state.gov/visa/temp/types/types_1267.html

http://www.embassyworld.com/embassy/usa1.htm

http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/

Amérikida Post-Doc Bolushqa Proféssor Tépish Yolliri

Töwendiki birnechche usul we qedem basquchlar arqiliq siz izdimekchi bolghan proféssorlarni tapalishingiz mumkin.

Birinchi xil usul tébbiy jurnallarda élan qilin’ghan maqaliler arqiliq proféssor tépish

(1) Siz qiziqidighan yaki kelgüsi qilmaqchi bolghan sahediki achquchluq sözlerni (key word) tépip, töwendiki tor betliridin izdep, munasiwetlik maqalilerni téping.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi yaki www.yahoo.com

www.google.com

Siz izdep tapqan maqalilerning köpinchisining peqetla abistrakit (qisqiche mezmun) bolup, toluq tékistini körüsh üchün heq telep qilidu, shundaqtimu köprek izdisingiz yenila yéterlik heqsiz maqalilerni tapalaysiz.

(2) Bu tapqan maqalilerni körüp chiqip, qiziqidighan qiziqmaydighanliqingizni yaki özingizge mas kélidighan kelmeydighanliqini békiting.

(3) Amérikida élan qilin’ghan maqalining birinchi aptori adette shu maqalidiki tejribilerni ishligüchi bolup, eng axirqi aptor köpinche hallarda shu tejribixanining bashliqi yeni bash proféssor bolidu. Shunga eger siz qiziqidighan maqale tapsingiz, eng axirqi aptorining ismi bilen éléctironluq-xet (e-mail) adrésini xatiriliwéling.

Ikkinchi xil usul aliy mektep yaki tetqiqat orunlirining tor béti arqiliq proféssor tépish

(1) Aliy mektep yaki tetqiqat orunlirining tor bétige bérip, u yerdin Medical School yaki Research dégen yerni tépip, andin kéyin siz qiziqidighan pen yaki sahege teelluq bolghan fakultét (Department) ni téping, uningdin kéyin shu fakultéttiki tetqiqat tejribixanilargha (Research Lab) kirip, tejribixana bashliqi (Lab Direktor) ni téping.

(2) Tapqan proféssorning tonushturulushi bilen tetqiqat yönilishini, élan qilghan maqalirini körüp chiqip, özingizning qiziqidighan qiziqmaydighanliqingizni yaki özingizge mas kélidighan kelmeydighanliqini békiting. Eger muwapiq körsingiz ismi bilen éléctronluq-xet (e-mail) adrésining xatiriliwéling.

Mesilen http://www.harvard.edu/ kirip “School” dégen yerni bassingiz töwendiki adrésqa kirisiz http://www.harvard.edu/academics/

Andin kéyin “Research programs ” dégennini bassingiz, töwendiki adrésqa kirisiz. http://www.harvard.edu/academics/research.html, “Medical School” ni körüsiz.

“Medical School” ni bassingiz http://www.hms.harvard.edu/research.html ge kirisiz.

U yerde Postdoctoral Opportunities at HMS dégenni körisiz. U yerdin izdisingizmu bolidu, yaki bolmisa özingiz qiziqidighan penler boyiche izdisingizmu bolidu.

Eger siz “Cell Biology” dégen yerni bassingiz http://cellbio.med.harvard.edu/ ge kirisingiz we yerde “Faculty” ni körüsiz.

“Faculty” dégenni bésip kirsingiz, http://cellbio.med.harvard.edu/faculty/index.html ge kirisiz we nurghun proféssorlarning ismi körüsiz.

Eger siz xalighan bir isimni bésip kirsingiz, siz izdimekchi bolghan matériyallargha yeni proféssorlarning e-mail adrésigha érisheleysiz.

Oxshimighan uniwérsitétning tor betliride az-tola perqler bolsimu, biraq tejribixana we proféssorlarning isim-famile we e-mail adrésini tépish asasen oxshiship kétidu.

Üchinchi xil usul munasiwetlik tor betlerdiki Job opportunity yaki career dégen élanlar arqiliq proféssor yaki tejribixana tépish. Adette bezi tor betlerde élan qilghan xizmet élanlirining telipi bir az yuqiri yaki Amérikidiki kishilerni asas qilidighan bolsimu, biraq bu élanlar arqiliq orun tépishning mumkinchiliki yenila bar.

Mesilen Science jornilining bu tor bétige http://www.sciencemag.org/ ge kirsingiz, science career dégen körisiz, uni bésip kirsingiz xizmet tépishqa ait her xil uchurlar tapalaysiz.

Amérikidiki Bir Qisim Uniwérsitét We Munasiwetlik Orunlarning Tor Betliri

Harvard University (MA) http://www.harvard.edu/

Yale University (CT) http://www.yale.edu/

Stanford University (CA) http://www.stanford.edu

University of Pennsylvania http://www.upenn.edu

Duke University (NC) http://www.duke.edu/

Dartmouth College (NH) http://www.dartmouth.edu

Columbia University (NY) http://www.columbia.edu

Cornell University (NY) http://www.cornell.edu

University of Chicago (IL) http://www.uchicago.edu

Northwestern University (IL) http://www.northwestern.edu

Rice University (TX) http://www.rice.edu

Brown University (RI) http://www.brown.edu

Johns Hopkins University (MD) http://www.jhu.edu

Washington University in St. Louis http://www.wustl.edu

Emory University (GA) http://www.emory.edu

University of Notre Dame (IN) http://www.nd.edu

University of California – Berkeley http://www.berkeley.edu

University of Virginia http://www.virginia.edu

Vanderbilt University (TN) http://www.vanderbilt.edu

Carnegie Mellon University (PA) http://www.cmu.edu

Georgetown University (DC) http://www.georgetown.edu

University of California – Los Angeles http://www.ucla.edu/

University of Michigan – Ann Arbor http://www.umich.edu

University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill http://www.unc.edu

Wake Forest University (NC) http://www.wfu.edu

Tufts University (MA) http://www.tufts.edu

College of William and Mary (VA) http://www.wm.edu

Brandeis University (MA) http://www.brandeis.edu

Univ. of California – San Diego http://www.ucsd.edu/

New York University http://www.nyu.edu

University of Rochester (NY) http://www.rochester.edu

Georgia Institute of Technology http://www.gatech.edu

Univ. of Southern California http://www.usc.edu/

Univ. of Wisconsin – Madison http://www.wisc.edu

Case Western Reserve Univ. (OH) http://www.cwru.edu

Lehigh University (PA) http://www2.lehigh.edu/home.html

University of California – Davis http://www.ucdavis.edu

University of California – Irvine http://www.uci.edu

University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign http://www.uiuc.edu

Pennsylvania State University– University Park http://www.psu.edu

University of California – Santa Barbara http://www.ucsb.edu

University of Washington http://www.washington.edu

American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.aap.org/

American Association of Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACPR)

http://www.aacvpr.org/

American Association of Respiratory Care (AARC) http://www.aarc.org/

American Heart Association http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=1200000

American Lung Association (ALA) http://www.lungusa.org/

American Psychological Association (APA) http://www.apa.org/

American Thoracic Society http://www.thoracic.org/

National Institute of Health (NIH) http://www.nih.gov/

Pulmonary Pathology Society http://www.pulmonarypath.org/

Journal List http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/IBIDS/journals.html

AJP - Cell Physiology http://ajpcell.physiology.org/

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/

American Journal of Respiratory and Cell Molecular Biology

http://ajrcmb.atsjournals.org/

Biochemical Journal http://bj.portlandpress.co.uk/bj.htm

Biochemistry and Cell Biology

http://www.cisti.nrc.ca/cgi-bin/cisti/journals/rp/rp2_desc_e?bcb

Journal of Cell Biology http://www.jcb.org/

New England Journal of Medicine

Science www.sciencemag.org

American Journal of Pathology http://ajp.amjpathol.org/

The Journal of Immunology http://www.jimmunol.org/

BD (Bacton Dickinson Company) http://www.bd.com/

BD Biosciences http://www.bdbiosciences.com

Bio-Rad http://www.bio-rad.com/B2B/BioRad/br_start.jsp

ICN http://www.icnbiomed.com

Pharmingen http://www.pharmingen.com

Roche Molecular Biochemicals

http://www.rochemolecularbiochemicals.ca/index.php

Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc http://www.scbt.com

Sigma http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/

Sigma Life Science

http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/Area_of_Interest/Life_Science.html

Transduction Laboratories http://www.translab.com

Upstate http://www.upstatebiotech.com/

Memet Emin
06-09-07, 12:02
Amérikigha Kélishte Muhim Bolghan Wiza Türliri

Memet Emin

F-1 viza asasliqi Amérikigha kélip oqumaqchi bolghan oqughichilargha bérilidu. Bu wizini élish üchün TOEFL, GRE lardin yuqiri netije bolushi, Amérika tereptin oqush mukapat puligha érishken bolushi kérek. Bu xil wizining Amérikigha kélishtiki inawetlik waqti adette 6 aydin 1 yilghiche bolup, Amérikigha kelgendin kéyin I-20 ning inawetlik waqti qanche uzun bolsa, Amérikida shunche uzun turghili bolidu. Bu wiza bilen Amérikigha kelgenler, heptisige adette 20 saet qanunluq ishlesh hoquqigha ige. Bu xil wiza bilen kelgenler, Amérikigha kelgendin kéyin eger mektep almashmaqchi bolsa, barmaqchi bolghan mektep qobul qilsila, mektep yaki kesp almashturghili bolidu.

F-2 viza F-1 wiza alghuchining ayali we balisigha bérilidighan wiza bolup, bu xil wiza bilen kelgenlerning, Amérikida turush waqti pütünley F-1 wizigha baghliq. F-1 wizining waqti toshsa bu wizining waqtimu tebii axirlishidu. Bu xil wiza bilen Amérikida qanunluq ishligili bolmaydu.

J-1 wiza Amérikigha kélip bilim ashurmaqchi bolghanlar yeni visiting scholar" (交换*者) ge bérilidu. Bu xil wizining waqtimu 6 aydin 1 yilghiche bolup, Amérikida turalaydighan waqti I-66 diki waqitqa baghliq. Adette eng uzun bolghanda 3 yil bolidu. 3 yildin kéyin adette choqum esli döletke qaytip kétish telep qilinidu. Eger Amérikida dawamliq turmaqchi bolsa, esli döliti (Home Country) din "kechürüm" (J-1 waiver) qilishi kérek. Bu wiza bilen xalighanche xizmet qilghili bolmaydu. Peqet I-66 ning üstidiki teminligen orundila xizmet qilish hoquqi bolidu. Eger bashqa orun’gha almashmaqchi bolsa, qarshi terep bu kishige qaytidin J-1 wiza iltimas qilip bérishi kérek. Eger bashqa wizigha almashturmaqchi bolsa, aldi bilen kechürüm (J-1 waiver) qilishi kérek.

J-2 wiza J-1 wiza alghuchining jörisige we balisigha bérilidighan wiza bolup, bu wiza bilen Amérikigha kelgenlerning Amérikida turush waqti J-1 wizigha baghliq. J-1 wiza kechürüm qilinsa bu wiza bilen kelgüchimu tebii halda kechürüm qilinidu. Bu xil wiza bilen Amérikigha kelgenler Amérikining Köchmenler Idarisidin xizmet qilix kénishkisige iltimas qilip testiqlan’ghandin kéyin xalighan orunda qanunluq xizmet qilghili bolidu.

H-1B wiza xizmet wizisi bolup, asasliqi yuqiri pen-téxnika xadimliri, alahide qol hünerwen yaki Amérikida kem uchraydighan kesptiki ishchi xizmetchilerge (qol hünerwenlerge, séstiralargha), mutexessislerge shundaqla bezi diniy xizmetchilerge bérilidu. Bu wiza bilen Amérikida mengülük turush hoquqigha (Green Card) iltimas qilghili bolidu. Bu xil wiza bilen Amérikigha kelgenlerning Amérikida turush waqti adette 3 yil, eng uzun bolghanda 6 yil bolidu. Bu 6 yil ichide choqum «Green Card»qa iltimas qilish kérek, bolmisa Amérikidin kétish kérek. 6 yil toshqandin kéyin bu wizigha qayta iltimas qilighili bolmaydu.

H-4 wiza H-1 wiza alghuchining jörisi we balisigha bérilidighan wiza bolup, bu wiza bilen Amérikigha kelgüchining Amérikida turush waqti pütünley H-1 wiza alghuchigha baghliq bolidu. Bu xil wiza bilen Amérikida qanunluq ishligili bolmaydu.

Memet Emin
06-09-07, 12:08
Amirka Kochmenler Siyasitining Qisqiche Exwali

Memet Emin

Amirka her yil dunyaning herqaysi jayliridin her xil kochmenlerni qobul qilidighan kochmen dowliti bolup, putun dunyada bar bolghan herqandaq bir dowlettiki herqandaq bir millet xelqi Amirkidin tipilidu.

Amirkida jemi 300 milliyun etirapida nopus bar bolup, ularning ichide texminen 70% Yawropadin kelgen aq tenlikler bolsa, texminen 12% Afriqidin kelgen qara tenlikler. Texminen 9% Otura we Jenubi Amirka qitesidin kelgen Ispan tilida sozleydighan Latin Amirkiliqlar. 2.4% Yehudilar. 1.2% Erepler. Yerlik Amirkiliqlar yeni Indianlar we Alaskaliqlar texminen 0.9% etirapida.

Amirkida texminen 12 miliyungha yiqin qanunsiz turiwatqan kishiler bolup, ularning mutleq kop qismi Meksikidin kelgenler iken. Jungguodin kelgenlermu az emes.

Amirkida dunyada bar tillarning hemmisi bar bolup, adette kop ishlitilidighan tillar 40 xildin ashidu. Amirkining dowlet tili we ortaq til Engliz tili bolup, texminen 80% Amirkiliqning birinji tili Engiliz tili. 12% Amirkiliqning birinji tili Ispan tili.

Amirkigha kochemn bolushning yolliri her xil bolup, muhim bolghanliri towendiki bir nechche xildin ibaret.

1-Xizmet yaki texnik arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolush (Employment-Based Immigration). Bu xil kochmen bolush yoli hazir Amirkida oqughan oqughuchilar, AMirkigha bilim ashurushqa kelgen mutixesisler, yaki Amirkida xizmet qiliwatqan kishiler eng kop qolliniwatqan kochmen bolush yoli bolup, her yil nurghun kishiler mushu yol arqiliq Amirkigha kochemn bolush mexsitige yetmekte. Eger siz aliy melumatliq bolsingiz (kem digende magistir yaki dokturluq unwanigha irishken bolsingiz), alahide kesipingiz yaki qol huniringiz bolsa (tenterbiye cholpanliri, yoqulush aldida turiwatqan qol huner ehli), Amirkida kem boliwatqan kespi xadim bolsingiz (misalen sistira), shundaqla Engiliz tilida melum asasingiz bolsa, eng muhimi Amirkidin sizge xizmet biridighan orun tapalisingiz, sizning Amirkigha kochmen bolush arzuyingiz bu yol arqiliq emelge ashishi mumkin.

2-Toy qilish arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolush. Amirka nopusidiki her qandaq er we yaki ayal bilen toy qilghan adem, shertsiz Amirkigha kochmen bolalaydu.

3-Amirkigha meblex silish arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolush. Amirkigha meblex silishmu Amirkigha kochemn bolushning bir yoli bolsimu, biraq Uyghurlarning hazirqi ehwaligha nisbeten anche asan emes.

4-Tuqqanliri arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolush (Family-Based Immigration). Eger sizning Amirkida yiqin yeni biwaste qandashliq munasiwiti bar tuqquningiz bolsa, hem shundaqla u tuqqiningiz Amirka nopusigha otken bolsa, u chaghda siz shu tuqquningiz arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolush mexsitige yiteleysiz.

5-Chek tartish arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolush (Green Card Lottery). Hazir nurghun dowletlerdiki Amirkigha kochmen bolushni azru qiliwatqan kishilerge nisbeten bu teley sinaydighan eng yaxshi yol bolup, her yili nurghun kishiler mushu yol arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolup kelmekte, biraq Junguo, Hindistan qatarliq Amirkida nopusi kop bolghan dowlet xelqige chek tartish arqiliq Amirkigha kilish ruxset qilinmaydu. Eger siz orta Asiya dowlet teweligide we yaki Turkiye teweligide bolsingiz telingizni sinap baqsingiz bolidu.

6-Musapir salahiti arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolush. Bu dimokkoratiyeleshmigen we yaki her xil urush qalaymiqanchiliq boliwatqan dowletlerdiki xelqler uchun eng yaxshi yol bolup, her yili kishilik hoquq ehmiyetke ilinimaywatqan, urush we her xil qalaymiqanchiliq kop boliwatqan dowletlerdiki nurghun kishiler mushu yol arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolup kelmekte. Sovit Afghanistan urush mezgilide nurghun Afghanistanliqlar mushu yol arqiliq Amirkigha kochmen bolup kelgen iken.

Amirkigha qanunluq kochmen bolup kelgen kishilerning Amirkida Mengguluk Turush Qarti (Green Card) qa irishish uchun ketken waxti adette 3 aydin 5, 6 yil ariliqida bolup, qismen kishilerning belkim uningdinmu uzun bolushi mumkin. Adette Amirkiliqlar bilen toy qilghanlarning eng tiz bolidu. Undin bashqa Amirkigha alahide tohpisi bar yaki bolush ihtimali bolghan kishilerning (mesilen yuquri pen texnika xadimlirining, alimlarning, tenterbiye cholpanlirining we Amirka ihtiyajliq kishilerning) mu Amirkida Mengguluk Turush Qarti (Green Card) qa irishish waxti tiz bolidu. Amirkigha kochmen bolup kelgenler Amirkida Mengguluk Turush Qarti (Green Card) qa iriship 5 yildin kiyin Amirkining wetendashliqigha iltimas qilsa bolidu. Iltimasi qobul qilinip, Amirkining wetendashliq imtahanidin otkendin kiyin Amirka wetendishi bolidu.

Meyli ata anisi Amirkiliq bolsun yaki Amirkiliq bolmisun, we yaki Amirkida qanunluq turiwatqan bolsun yaki qanunsiz turiwatqan bolsun, Amirkida tughulghan balilarning hemmisi Amirkiliq bolidu.

Amirkigha kochmen bolush toghursidiki tiximu kop uchurlargha iishmekchi bolghanlar, Amirka Kochmenler Idarisining hokumet tor bitige qarisa bolidu.

http://www.uscis.gov/graphics/index.htm

Memet Emin
06-09-07, 12:15
A-1 Ambassador, public minister, career, diplomatic or consular officer, and members of immediate family.
INA Section 101(a)(15)(A)(i)
8 CFR 214.2(a)

A-2 Other foreign government official or employee, and members of immediate family.
INA Section 101(a)(15)(A)(ii)
8 CFR 214.2(a)

A-3 Attendant, servant, or personal employee of A-1 and A-2, and members of immediate family.
INA Section 101(a)(15)(A)(iii)
8 CFR 214.2(a)

Visitors Business or Pleasure Visitors
Tips for U.S. Visas - Business or Pleasure Visitors

B-1 Temporary visitor for business
INA Section 101(a)(15)(B)
8 CFR 214.2(b)

B-2 Temporary visitor for pleasure
INA Section 101(a)(15)(B)
8 CFR 214.2(b)

Visa Waiver Program Visa Waiver Program (Immigration.gov)
Visa Waiver Program (Dept. of State)

Aliens in Transit
C-1 Alien in transit directly through U.S.
INA Section 101(a)(15)(C)
8 CFR 214.2(c)

C-1D Combined transit and crewman visa
INA Section 101(a)(15)(C) & (D)
8 CFR 214.2(c)

C-2 Alien in transit to UN headquarters district under Section 11.(3), (4), or (5) of the Headquarters Agreement

INA Section 101(a)(15)(C)
8 CFR 214.2(c)

C-3 Foreign government official, members of immediate family, attendant, servant, or personal employee, in transit
INA Section 212(d)(8)
8 CFR 214.2(c)

C-4 Transit without Visa, see TWOV

INA Sections 212(d)(3), and 212(d)(5)
8 CFR 212.1(f)

Crewmen
D-1 Crewmember departing on same vessel of arrival
INA section 101(a)(15)(D)
8 CFR 214.2(d)

D-2 Crewmember departing by means other than vessel of arrival
INA section 101(a)(15)(D)
8 CFR 214.2(d)

Treaty Traders and Treaty Investors Instructions for Form I-129: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker

E-1 Treaty Trader, spouse and children
INA Section 101(a)(15)(E)(i)
8 CFR 214.2(e)(1)

E-2 Treaty Investor, spouse and children
INA Section 101(a)(15)(E)(ii)
8 CFR 214.2(e)(2)


Academic Students Dept. of State: Implementation of ISEAS
Information on Student Visas
How Do I Become an Academic Student in the United States?
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Foreign Students
Dept. of State: Information on Student Visas
Dept. of State: What Consuls Look For
Dept. of State: New Legal Requirements for F-1 Foreign Students in Public Schools
How Do I Apply to Qualify My School for Foreign Student Assistance?

F-1 Academic Student
INA Section 101(a)(15)(F)(i)
8 CFR 214.2(f)

F-2 Spouse or child of F-1
INA Section 101(a)(15)(F)(ii)
8 CFR 214.2(f)

For Foreign Medical Graduates (see individual categories H-1B, J-1, O-1, TN, E-2)

Foreign Government Officials to International Organizations
G-1 Principal resident representative of recognized foreign member government to international organization, and members of immediate family.
INA Section 101(a)(15)(G)(i)
8 CFR 214.2(g)

G-2 Other representative of recognized foreign member government to international organization, and members of immediate family.
INA Section 101(a)(15)(G)(ii)
8 CFR 214.2(e)(1)

G-3 Representative of non-recognized or nonmember government to international organization, and members of immediate family
INA Section 101(a)(15)(G)(iii)
8 CFR 214.2(G)

G-4 International organization officer or employee, and members of immediate family
INA Section 101(a)(15)(G)(iv)
8 CFR 214.2(g)

G-5 Attendant, servant, or personal employee of G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, or members of immediate family
INA Section 101(a)(15)(G)(v)
8 CFR 214.2(g)

Temporary Workers Immigration.gov Information on Temporary Workers
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Temporary Workers
Instructions for Form I-129: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker

H-1B Specialty Occupations, DOD workers, fashion models
INA Section 101(a)(15)(H)(i)(b)
8 CFR 214.2(h)(4)

H-1C Nurses going to work for up to three years in health professional shortage areas
INA Section 101(a)(15)(H)(i)(c)
8 CFR 214.2(h)(3)

H-2A Temporary Agricultural Worker
INA Section 101(a)(15)(H)(ii)(a)
8 CFR 214.2(h)(5)

H-2B Temporary worker: skilled and unskilled
INA Section 101(a)(15)(H)(ii)(b)
8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)

H-3 Trainee
INA Section 101(a)(15)(H)(iii)
8 CFR 214.2(h)(7)

H-4 Spouse or child of H-1, H-2, H-3
INA Section 101(a)(15)(H)(iv)
8 CFR 214.2(h)(9)(iv)

Foreign Media Representatives Dept. of State: Revalidation of "I" Journalist Visas

I Visas for foreign media representatives
INA Section 101(a)(15)(I)
8 CFR 214.2(i)

Exchange Visitors Dept. of State: Implementation of ISEAS
Immigration.gov Information on Exchange Visitors
How Do I Get a Waiver of the Foreign Residence Requirement if I am an Exchange Visitor
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Exchange Visitors

J-1 Visas for exchange visitors
INA Section 101(a)(15)(J)(i)
8 CFR 214.2(j)


J-2 Spouse or child of J-1
INA Section 101(a)(15)(J)(ii)
8 CFR 214.2(j)

Fiance(e) of US Citizen
K-1 Fiance(e) How Do I Bring My Fiance(e) to the United States?
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Fiance(e)s
How Do I Change My Fiance(e)'s Status to Lawful Permanent Resident?
INA Section 101(a)(15)(K)
8 CFR 214.2(k)

K-2 Minor child of K-1
INA Section 101(a)(15)(K)
8 CFR 214.2(k)

K-3 Spouse of a U.S. Citizen (LIFE Act) How Do I Become a K-Nonimmigrant as the Spouse or Child of a U.S. Citizen?
Dept. of State: The New K and V
INA Section 101(a)(15)(K)(ii)
8 CFR 214.2(k)

K-4 Child of K-3 (LIFE Act)
INA Section 101(a)(15)(K)(iii)
8 CFR 214.2(k)

Intracompany Transferee Immigration.gov Information on Temporary Workers
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Temporary Workers
Instructions for Form I-129: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker

L-1A Executive, managerial
INA Section 101(a)(15)(L)
8 CFR 214.2(l)

L-1B Specialized knowledge
INA Section 101(a)(15)(L)
8 CFR 214.2(l)

L-2 Spouse or child of L-1
INA Section 101(a)(15)(L)
8 CFR 214.2(l)

Vocational and Language Students Immigration.gov Information on Student Visas
How Do I Become a Vocational Student in the United States?
Dept. of State: Implementation of ISEAS
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Foreign Student Visas
Dept. of State: Applying for a foreign Student Visa
Dept. of State: What Consuls Look For - Student Visas
Dept. of State: New Legal Requirements for F-1 Foreign Students in U.S. Public Schools
How Do I Apply to Qualify My School for Foreign Student Attendance

M-1 Vocational student or other nonacademic student
INA Section 101(a)(15)(M)(i)
8 CFR 214.2(m)

M-2 Spouse or child of M-1
INA Section 101(a)(15)(M)(ii)
8 CFR 214.2(m)

N-8 Parent of alien classified SK-3 "Special Immigrant"
INA Section 101(a)(15)(N)(i)

N-9 Child of N-8, SK-1, SK-2, or SK-4 "Special Immmigrant"
INA Section 101(a) (15)(N)(ii) through (iv)

NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (see TN, below)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO-1 Principal Permanent Representative of Member State to NATO and resident members of official staff or immediate family
Not included in the INA
Article 12, 5 US Treaties 1094
Article 20, 5 US Treaties 1098 8 CFR 214.2(s)

NATO-2 Other representatives of member State; Dependents of Member of a Force entering in accordance with the provisions of NATO Status-of-Forces agreement; Members of such a Force if issued visas
Article 13, 5 US Treaties 1094
Article 1, 4 US Treaties 1794
Article 3, 4 US Treaties 1796 8 CFR 214.2(s)

NATO-3 Official clerical staff accompanying Representative of Member State to NATO or immediate family
Article 14, 5 US Treaties 1096 8 CFR 214.2(s)

NATO-4 Official of NATO other than those qualified as NATO-1 and immediate family
Article 18, 5 US Treaties 1096 8 CFR 214.2(s)

NATO-5 Expert other than NATO officials qualified under NATO-4, employed on behalf of NATO and immediate family
Article 21, 5 US Treaties 1100 8 CFR 214.2(s)

NATO-6 Member of civilian component who is either accompanying a Force entering in accordance with the provisions of the NATO Status-of-Forces agreement; attached to an Allied headquarters under the protocol on the Status of International Military headquarters set up pursuant to the North Atlantic Treaty; and their dependents
Article 1, 4 US Treaties 1794
Article 3, 5 US Treaties 877 8 CFR 214.2(s)

NATO-7 Servant or personal employee of NATO-1, NATO-2, NATO-3, NATO-4, NATO-5, NATO-6, or immediate family
Articles 12-20, 5 US Treaties 1094 - 1098 8 CFR 214.2(s)

Workers with Extraordinary Abilities Immigration.gov Information on Temporary Workers
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Temporary Workers
Instructions for Form I-129: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker

O-1 Extraordinary ability in Sciences, Arts, Education, Business, or Athletics
INA Section 101(a)(15)(O)(i))
8 CFR 214.2(o)(1), 8 CFR 214.2(o)(2), 8 CFR 214.2(o)(3)

O-2 Alien's (support) accompanying O-1
INA Section 101(a)(15)(O)(ii)
8 CFR 214.2(o)(4)

O-3 Spouse or child of O-1 or O-2
INA Section 101(a)(15)(O)(iii)
8 CFR 214.2(o)(5)

Athletes and Entertainers Immigration.gov Information on Temporary Workers
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Temporary Workers
Instructions for Form I-129: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker

P-1 Individual or team athletes
INA Section 101(a)(15)(P)(i)
8 CFR 214.2(p)(4)

P-1 Entertainment groups
INA Section 101(a)(15)(P)(i)
8 CFR 214.2(p)(4)

P-2 Artists and entertainers in reciprocal Exchange programs
INA Section 101(a)(15)(P)(ii)
8 CFR 214.2(p)(5)

P-3 Artists and entertainers in culturally unique programs
INA Section 101(a)(15)(P)(iii)
8 CFR 214.2(p)(6)

P-4 Spouse or child of P-1, 2, or 3
INA Section 101(a)(15)(P)(iv)
8 CFR 214.2(p)(8)(iii)(D)

International Cultural Exchange Visitors
Q-1 International cultural exchange visitors Immigration.gov Information on Exchange Visitors
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Exchange Visitors
Instructions for Form I-129: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker
INA Section 101(a)(15)(Q)(i)
8 CFR 214.2(q)

Q-2 Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program (Walsh Visas) Walsh Visa Program
INA Section 101(a)(15)(Q)(ii)(l)
8 CFR 214.2(q)(15)

Q-3 Spouse or child of Q-2
INA Section 101(a)(15)(Q)(ii)(ll)
8 CFR 214.2(q)(15)

Religious Workers Immigration.gov Information on Temporary Workers
Dept. of State: Tips for U.S. Visas: Temporary Religious Workers
Instructions for Form I-129: Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker

R-1 Religious workers
INA Section 101(a)(15)(R)
8 CFR 214.2(r)

R-2 Spouse or child of R-1
INA Section 101(a)(15)(R)
8 CFR 214.2(r)

Witness or Informant
S-5 Informant of criminal organization information
INA Section 101(a)(15)(S)(i)

S-6 Informant of terrorism information
INA Section 101(a)(15)(S)(ii)

T Victims of a Severe Form of Trafficking in Persons Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Fact Sheet on T Application Process
Dept. of State: Trafficking in Persons Report
<>Dept. of State: Foreign Affairs Manual, Section 41.84

T-1 Victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons
INA Section 101(a)(15)(T)(i)
8 CFR 214.11

T-2 Spouse of a victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons
INA Section 101(a)(15)(T)(ii)
8 CFR 214.11(o)

T-3 Child of victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons
INA Section 101(a)(15)(T)(ii)
8 CFR 214.11(o)

T-4 Parent of victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons (if T-1 victim is under 21 years of age)
INA Section 101(a)(15)(T)(ii)
8 CFR 214.11(o)

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Dept. of State: Professionals Under NAFTA

TN Trade visas for Canadians and Mexicans
INA Section 214(e)(2)
8 CFR 214.6
Canadians: 8 CFR 214.6(d)
Mexicans: 8 CFR 214.6(e)

TD Spouse or child accompanying TN-
INA Section 214(e)(2)
8 CFR 214.6(j)

Transit Without Visa
TWOV Passenger
INA Sections 212(d)(3) and 212(d)(5)
8 CFR 212.1(f)

TWOV Crew
INA Sections 212(d)(3) and 212(d)(5)
8 CFR 212.1(f)

U Victims of Certain Crimes
U-1 Victim of Certain Criminal Activity</FONT< td>
INA Section 101(a)(15)(U)

U-2 Spouse of U-1
INA Section 101(a)(15)(U)

U-3 Child of U-1
INA Section 101(a)(15)(U)

U-4 Parent of U-1, if U-1 is under 21 years of age
INA Section 101(a)(15)(U)

Certain Second Preference Beneficiaries How Do I Become a V-Nonimmigrant as the Spouse or Child of a U.S. Permanent Resident?
Dept. of State: The New K and V Visas

V-1 Spouse of an LPR who is the principal beneficiary of a family-based petition (Form I-130) which was filed prior to December 21, 2001, and has been pending for at least three years
INA Section 101(a)(15)(V)
8 CFR 214.15

V-2 Child of an LPR who is the principal beneficiary of a family-based visa petition (Form I-130) that was filed prior to December 21, 2001, and has been pending for at least three years.
INA Section 101(a)(15)(V)
8 CFR 214.15

V-3 The derivative child of a V-1 or V-2
INA Section 101(a)(15)(V)
8 CFR 214.15

Humanitarian Parole Immigration.gov Information on Humanitarian Parole

Temporary Protected Status (TPS) Immigration.gov Information on Temporary Protected Status
How Do I Apply for Temporary Protected Status?

TPS Temporary Protected Status

Unregistered
06-09-07, 13:03
Memet Ependim, amerkida PhD, MD, JD dep kollanghan bolsa ular uning perkini qokum bilidu. Dewletler ara ukum kalaymikanqilikidin melum derjide paydilnishkimu bolidiken, hittaylar bu hekte hili munazire kilip bakkan, amerkigha kilip MD bolap kilip wetenge barsa yene baklawur bolap kalidighan gepken. Hittaydin baklwurluk bilen kilip amerkida MD post doc bolap ishleydighanlar nahayiti kop. Amerkida dohturluktin bashka kespte 120 ming dollar muash aldi digen gep, u hizmet u hadimdin 120 ming dollarlik nahayiti yukuri hizmet ihtidari telep kilidu digen gep, bashka kesplerde bu asan ish emes, undakta amerkida MD dohturlar mushu 120 ming dollarge kanqilik hizmet ihtidarige ige bolsa oz hizmetlirini saklap kalalaydu. Adettiki hitaydiki dohturluk sewye bilen saklap kalghili bolamdu, yaki bu bir kop japalik ishmu.

Memet Emin
06-09-07, 15:24
Eger USMLE imtihanidin ötüp 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) muhapiqiyetlik tugitelisingiz, nede oqup MD bolishingizdin qetti nezer, sizning 120000 dollarliq xizmetni saqlap qilishingiz hichqanche gep emes. Bu yerddiki qiyinchiliq 120000 dollarliq xizmetni saqlap qilish emes, belki USMLE imtihanidin ötüp 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) muhapiqiyetlik tugitish. Bu bir nahayti japaliq jeryan. Junggoda oqup kelgenler, Amirkigha kelgendin kiyin kem digende 5, 6 yil japaliq teyyarliq qilip, andin bu imtahandin oteleydu, beziler hette uningdinmu artuq teyyarliq qilishi mumkin. Hazirghiche men bilidighanlardin 3 Uyghur bu imtahandin muhapiqiyetlik otken, bularning ichidin 1, hazir resmi xizmetke chushtin. Xittaylargha kelsek, Jungguoda oqup, yuqarqi jeryanlarni tugutup, 2, 3 yuz ming dollar muhash alidighanlar kop. Men bilidighan Xittaylarning ichide Jungoda oqup, hetta bir miliyundin artuq muhash alidighanlar bar.

Men bu yerde digen 120000 dollar muhash tixi eng towen muhash olchimi, emiliyette belkim uningdinmu yuquri bolushi mumkin.

Bu yerde diyilgen MD unwanini, Amirkidin bashqa dowletlerning kopunchiside 4, 5 yilliq tibbi mektepni putturgenlerning atilishi bolup, peqet Amirkidila 4 yilliq ali mektep + 4 yilliq tibbi mektepni putturgenlerge birilidu. Yawropa dowletliri, Yaponiye, Junggo qatarliq dowletlerde bolsa otura mektepni putturgendin kiyin, biwaste tibbi mektpeke birip, 4, 5 yil oqughandin kiyin biridu.

Amirkidiki MD bilen bashqa dowletlerdiki MD ning periqi bar, biraq USMLE imtihani bilen 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) ning periqi yoq. Yeni qaysi jayda oqughan bolushtin qetti nezer, bu telepke yitelisingiz, alidighan muhashingiz yuqurdiki sandin yuquri bolidu.

Memet Emin

Unregistered
06-09-07, 17:15
Eger USMLE imtihanidin ötüp 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) muhapiqiyetlik tugitelisingiz, nede oqup MD bolishingizdin qetti nezer, sizning 120000 dollarliq xizmetni saqlap qilishingiz hichqanche gep emes. Bu yerddiki qiyinchiliq 120000 dollarliq xizmetni saqlap qilish emes, belki USMLE imtihanidin ötüp 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) muhapiqiyetlik tugitish. Bu bir nahayti japaliq jeryan. Junggoda oqup kelgenler, Amirkigha kelgendin kiyin kem digende 5, 6 yil japaliq teyyarliq qilip, andin bu imtahandin oteleydu, beziler hette uningdinmu artuq teyyarliq qilishi mumkin. Hazirghiche men bilidighanlardin 3 Uyghur bu imtahandin muhapiqiyetlik otken, bularning ichidin 1, hazir resmi xizmetke chushtin. Xittaylargha kelsek, Jungguoda oqup, yuqarqi jeryanlarni tugutup, 2, 3 yuz ming dollar muhash alidighanlar kop. Men bilidighan Xittaylarning ichide Jungoda oqup, hetta bir miliyundin artuq muhash alidighanlar bar.

Men bu yerde digen 120000 dollar muhash tixi eng towen muhash olchimi, emiliyette belkim uningdinmu yuquri bolushi mumkin.

Bu yerde diyilgen MD unwanini, Amirkidin bashqa dowletlerning kopunchiside 4, 5 yilliq tibbi mektepni putturgenlerning atilishi bolup, peqet Amirkidila 4 yilliq ali mektep + 4 yilliq tibbi mektepni putturgenlerge birilidu. Yawropa dowletliri, Yaponiye, Junggo qatarliq dowletlerde bolsa otura mektepni putturgendin kiyin, biwaste tibbi mektpeke birip, 4, 5 yil oqughandin kiyin biridu.

Amirkidiki MD bilen bashqa dowletlerdiki MD ning periqi bar, biraq USMLE imtihani bilen 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) ning periqi yoq. Yeni qaysi jayda oqughan bolushtin qetti nezer, bu telepke yitelisingiz, alidighan muhashingiz yuqurdiki sandin yuquri bolidu.

Memet Emin

Behitlik bolunglar dohturlar! Yigen nan singsun! Amin

Unregistered
06-09-07, 17:17
Hormetlik Dr. Mehmet Emin,
Hazir dunyaning hemme yeridin (hetta afriqidin) kelgen MD lar amerikada shundaq kop, emma Uyghurlardin bolghanlarning sani intain az. Amerikada dohturlar ichide 120,000 alidighanlar az, men bilidighan hitay dohturlarning tolisi 150,000 din yuquri alidu. Shunga wetendashlargha bu qimmetlik uchurni berginingizge rehmet eytimen.

Unregistered
07-09-07, 09:48
Behitlik bolunglar dohturlar! Yigen nan singsun! Amin

ahmaq...yigan neni nimixka singmigidek japada algan bilimning?????

Unregistered
07-09-07, 11:41
Eger USMLE imtihanidin ötüp 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) muhapiqiyetlik tugitelisingiz, nede oqup MD bolishingizdin qetti nezer, sizning 120000 dollarliq xizmetni saqlap qilishingiz hichqanche gep emes. Bu yerddiki qiyinchiliq 120000 dollarliq xizmetni saqlap qilish emes, belki USMLE imtihanidin ötüp 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) muhapiqiyetlik tugitish. Bu bir nahayti japaliq jeryan. Junggoda oqup kelgenler, Amirkigha kelgendin kiyin kem digende 5, 6 yil japaliq teyyarliq qilip, andin bu imtahandin oteleydu, beziler hette uningdinmu artuq teyyarliq qilishi mumkin. Hazirghiche men bilidighanlardin 3 Uyghur bu imtahandin muhapiqiyetlik otken, bularning ichidin 1, hazir resmi xizmetke chushtin. Xittaylargha kelsek, Jungguoda oqup, yuqarqi jeryanlarni tugutup, 2, 3 yuz ming dollar muhash alidighanlar kop. Men bilidighan Xittaylarning ichide Jungoda oqup, hetta bir miliyundin artuq muhash alidighanlar bar.

Men bu yerde digen 120000 dollar muhash tixi eng towen muhash olchimi, emiliyette belkim uningdinmu yuquri bolushi mumkin.

Bu yerde diyilgen MD unwanini, Amirkidin bashqa dowletlerning kopunchiside 4, 5 yilliq tibbi mektepni putturgenlerning atilishi bolup, peqet Amirkidila 4 yilliq ali mektep + 4 yilliq tibbi mektepni putturgenlerge birilidu. Yawropa dowletliri, Yaponiye, Junggo qatarliq dowletlerde bolsa otura mektepni putturgendin kiyin, biwaste tibbi mektpeke birip, 4, 5 yil oqughandin kiyin biridu.

Amirkidiki MD bilen bashqa dowletlerdiki MD ning periqi bar, biraq USMLE imtihani bilen 3, 4 yilliq residency (住院医生) ning periqi yoq. Yeni qaysi jayda oqughan bolushtin qetti nezer, bu telepke yitelisingiz, alidighan muhashingiz yuqurdiki sandin yuquri bolidu.

Memet Emin

Memet ependim ashundak yukuri sewyege yetkenlerni tebrikleymiz. Likin amerkida mawu, mawu kespte milyon dollar alidiken, hemme shu kespte ashu milyon dollarni alidu diyish bashkilargha hata kizikturush ilip kilidu. Amerikuda neqqe on milyonlap muash alidighanlar kop, birak hemme ademge ashundak bolmaydu. siz digen dohturlukka kelsek, belkim nahayiti inqike aparatsiye (yurek, nirwa) elip baralaydighan dohturlarning muashi shundak yukuridu, likin kara uqey dohturi bolap kalsa anqe kop muash bolmaslighi mumkin. Shundaktimu kileqekte siler dohturlukta intayin yukuri sewyege yitip kitingizlerge tilekdashmiz.

Unregistered
07-09-07, 23:00
Chetellerde kop belim elip kop bilim elish nahayiti yaxshi ish lekin ,shu belimlikning kedri peket wetendila bolidu,meyli chetelerde kanche kop pul -muash almang(addette mumkin emes) ,uning hishkandak lezziti bolmaydu.
shunlashka belim elip oz wetinide ishlesh hem ehmiyetlik hemde hayatingiz menilik otidu.hergiz karghularche chellerge chikmang!!!