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Uyghuristan: A brief history
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Von: farhan_siddiqui - Profil anzeigen
Datum: Mo 26 Apr. 1999 00:00
E-Mail: farhan_siddi...@my-dejanews.com
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Brief History of the Uyghers

This document was reproduced by permission from the Eastern Turkestan Union
in Europe The addition of Pinyin spellings has been included for
standardization. Uygur is also spelled : UIGHUR, UYGUR, UIGUR, UIGHUIR,
UIGUIR, WEIWUER


Introduction
Early History
The Kanchou (Ganzhou)Uygur Kingdom
The Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom
The Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom
Manchu Invasion
Uygur Civilization
Uygur Script
Uygur Literature
Religion
Uygur Economy
Uygur Medicine
Architecture, Art, Music and Printing


Introduction


The Uighers are the native people of Eastern Turkestan, also known as
Xinjiang or Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The latest Chinese census gives
the present population of the Uyghers as 7.2 million 1 . There are also
500,000 Uygurs in Western Turkestan mostly known as Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan,
Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan 2 . Almost 75,000 Uygurs have their
homes in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Europe and the United
States 3 .


The Chinese sources indicate that the Uygurs are the direct descendants of the
Huns 4 .


The name "Uygur" is mentioned in the chronicles of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.
- 220 A.D.), Wei Dynasty (265-289 A.D.), Tang Dynasty (618-906 A.D.), and
Sung Dynasty (906-960) 5 .


Ancient Greek, Iranian, and Chinese sources placed Uygurs with their tribes,
and sub-tribes in the vast area between the west banks of the Yellow River in
the east, Eastern Turkestan in the west, and in the Mongolian steppe in the
northeast as early as 300 B.C. 6 .


Early History


After 210 B.C., the Uygurs played important roles in the Hun (220 B.C. - 386
A.D.), Tabgach
(Toba) (386-554 A.D.), and Kok Turk (552-744 A.D.) empires which were
established in Central
Asia 6


In 670, 688, 692 A.D., the Uygurs, the Kok Turk and the Shato joined the
Tibetan Armies in their military expeditions in capturing the Chinese
invasion strongholds in north and northeast Central Asia. 8


After the fall of the Kok-Turk Empire in Central Asia, the Uygurs established
their first true state in
744, with the city of Karabalgasun, on the banks of the Orkhun River, as its
capital.


The founder of this Uygur state was Kutluk Bilge Kul Khagan (King or Ruler).
In 747, he was succeeded by his son Moyunchur, a powerful leader who subdued
other Turkic clans, consolidated the monarchy, and extended his rule in the
north to Lake Baikal, in the east to Gansu and in the southwest to India. 9


It so happened that just as the Uygurs became united and strong, the Chinese
Tang Dynasty under Hsuan-tsung (Xuanzong) (712-756 A.D.) was undergoing a
sharp decline. In 751, a Chinese army was disastrously defeated at the battle
of Talas River by the Arabs, Tibetans, and the Uygurs. In the same year, a
Chinese invasion of the Nan-chao (Nanzhao) to the southeast was thwarted with
appalling losses to the Chinese; and a Chinese force under An Lu Shan was
defeated by the Khitan (Qidan) in the northeast. These disasters were but the
prelude to a much more fearful catastrophe - the rebellion of the former
trusted minister An Lu Shan which broke out in 755 A.D.


It was under these circumstances that the Uygurs were invited by Su-tsung
(Suzong), the Hsuan-tsung's (Xuanzong) successor, to send armies to help the
Chinese. In this event, the Uygur forces played a key role in the recapture
of both Chang-An (Chang'an) and Lo-yang (Luoyang) in 757. The Uygurs did not
hesitate to exploit the Tang Dynastic debt owed them, by acts of appalling
pillage. The Chinese emperor agreed to pay 20,000 rolls of silk as a tribute
annually to the Uygurs and granted the Uygur Khagan one of his daughters in
marriage. 10 She was the first of three princesses of the Chinese imperial
family to become a Uygur khatun (wife) in the period 744-840 A.D. 11


Moyunchur Khagan died in 759 and was succeeded by his son Bugu Khagan. During
his reign, the Uygurs reached the apex of their power. They began with China,
which engaged in forced trade of Uygur horses for Chinese silk - an exchange
which was noted frequently in Chinese sources before 829.


In 762 Bugu Khagan sent to the Middle Kingdom where he helped the Tang Dynasty
in the final
battles against the rebellion which had racked it for so long.


In 779, Bugu Khagan was killed by his first cousin and chief minister Baga
Tarkan. Bugu Khagan's Sogdian allies and advisors had wanted him to take
advantage of the death in 779 of Emperor Tai-tsung (Taizong) and the state
mourning involved in it, to undertake an invasion of China. Bugu Khagan
agreed to do this. His first cousin Baga Tarkan opposed the plan; and when he
saw the tide turning against him, murdered Bugu Khagan and set himself on the
throne. Baga Tarkan, believed at this stage China could have been conquered
by the Uygurs. But he did not believe that Uygurs would be able to preserve
their cultural identity if they once conquered China, a vast and populous
country even then.


After the death of Baga Tarkan in 789 and specially after that of his
successor, Kulug Bilge Khagan in 790, Uygur power and prestige declined


In 795, the rule of the Uygur state passed to another clan. Under this new
clan the Uygurs became more and more steeped in religion, which softened them
and planted seeds of advanced culture which characterized the Uygurs of later
ages.


The most important ruler of this clan was Kutluk Bilge Khagan, whose
successful military exploits, both before and during his reign, are reported
in the Karabalgasun inscriptions. 12 He did not succeed , however, in
restoring the Uygur empire to its former power.


With Kutluk Bilge Khagan's death in 805, the forces of disintegration of the
Uygur state gathered momentum. War broke out abroad with the powerful Kyrgyz
neighbors to the north; while at home, court intrigue eroded the power of the
royal family; rebellions broke out, and, to add to everything, a bad season
and severe winter in 839 killed much of the livestock upon which the Uygur
economy was so dependent. In 840, the Kyrgyz, invited by a rebel chief,
attacked the tottering state, killed the Khagan, and took the capital.


This first part of Uygur political history shows the Uygurs as the protectors
of the Chinese empire for almost a century. On the other hand, the
relationship was not really a friendly one. There was abiding resentment on
the Chinese side. The reason was that the Middle Kingdom was obliged to be
protected by a "barbarian" people. The Uygurs, for their part, never gave the
Chinese the respect which the latter would have liked. 13


After the fall of the first Uygur empire, a group of Uygurs emigrated to the
west banks of the Yellow
River in Kansu (Gansu); a second group emigrated via Yetti Su to the Southern
part of Khan Tengri
or Tianshan in Eastern Turkestan; the third and the largest group emigrated to
the northern part of
Khan Tengri where their ancestors are still living. 14


The Kanchou (Ganzhou) Uygur Kingdom


The Kanchou (Ganzhou) Uygur Kingdom, which was established in today's Kansu
province of China, in 850, never became a major power, but the Chinese had
great respect for it as seen from the Chinese court praise Kanchou (Ganzhou)
Uygur King when an Uygur and a Tibetan ambassador visited the Chinese capital
in 911. 15 . Nevertheless, this kingdom was absorbed in 1228 by the Tankuts
who established a state in the area known as Western Hsia.


Several thousand of these Uygurs still live in the Kansu (Gansu) area under
the name yellow Uygurs or Yugurs, preserving their old Uygur mother tongue
and their ancient Yellow sect of Lamaist Buddhism.


The Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom


The Uygurs living in the northern part of Khan Tengri (Tianshan Mountains) in
Eastern Turkestan established the Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom (Qocho) near the
present day city of Turfan (Turpan), in 846. 16 The Chinese recognized this
kingdom and sent Wang Yen (Yan) De in 981 to Karakhoja as their ambassador 17
. Wang Yen (Yan) De stayed in Karakhoja for three years.


The Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom


The Uygurs living in the southern part of Khan Tengri, established the
Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom in
840 with the support of other Turkic clans like the Karluks, Turgish and the
Basmils, with Kashgar
as its capital. 18


In 934, during the rule of Satuk Bughra Khan, the Karakhanids embraced Islam
19 . Thus, in the territory of Eastern Turkestan two Uygur kingdoms were set
up: the Karakhanid, who were Muslims, and the Karakhojas, who were Buddhists.


In 1397 this Islamic and Buddhist Uygur Kingdoms merged into one state and
maintained their
independence until 1759. 20


Manchu Invasion


The Manchus who set up a huge empire in China, invaded the Uygur Kingdom of
Eastern Turkestan in 1759 and dominated it until 1862. During this period the
Uygurs revolted 42 times against the Manchu rule with the purpose of
regaining their independence. 21 In the last revolt of 1863, the Uygurs were
successful in expelling the Manchus from their motherland, and founded an
independent kingdom in 1864. The kingdom was recognized by the Ottoman
Empire, Tsarist Russia, and Great Britain. 22 But for fear of Tsarist
expansion into Eastern Turkestan, Great Britain persuaded the Manchu court to
conquer Eastern Turkestan. The money for the Manchu invasion was granted by
the British Banks. 23


Large forces under the overall command of General Zho Zhung Tang (Tso
Tsung-t'ang / Zui
Zongtang), attacked Eastern Turkestan in 1876. After this invasion, Eastern ...

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Von: w008802 - Profil anzeigen
Datum: Di 27 Apr. 1999 00:00
E-Mail: w008...@airmail.net
Gruppen: soc.culture.turkish, soc.culture.iranian, soc.culture.afghanistan, soc.culture.pakistan
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Why does your history below drop the Mongol period?

On Mon, 26 Apr 1999 20:55:28 GMT, farhan_siddi...@my-dejanews.com in the



- Zitierten Text ausblenden -
- Zitierten Text anzeigen -

message <7g2jru$4b...@nnrp1.dejanews.com> wrote:
>Brief History of the Uyghers

> This document was reproduced by permission from the Eastern Turkestan Union
>in Europe The addition of Pinyin spellings has been included for
>standardization. Uygur is also spelled : UIGHUR, UYGUR, UIGUR, UIGHUIR,
>UIGUIR, WEIWUER


> Introduction
> Early History
> The Kanchou (Ganzhou)Uygur Kingdom
> The Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom
> The Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom
> Manchu Invasion
> Uygur Civilization
> Uygur Script
> Uygur Literature
> Religion
> Uygur Economy
> Uygur Medicine
> Architecture, Art, Music and Printing


> Introduction


>The Uighers are the native people of Eastern Turkestan, also known as
>Xinjiang or Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The latest Chinese census gives
>the present population of the Uyghers as 7.2 million 1 . There are also
>500,000 Uygurs in Western Turkestan mostly known as Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan,
>Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan 2 . Almost 75,000 Uygurs have their
>homes in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Europe and the United
>States 3 .


>The Chinese sources indicate that the Uygurs are the direct descendants of the
>Huns 4 .


>The name "Uygur" is mentioned in the chronicles of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.
>- 220 A.D.), Wei Dynasty (265-289 A.D.), Tang Dynasty (618-906 A.D.), and
>Sung Dynasty (906-960) 5 .


>Ancient Greek, Iranian, and Chinese sources placed Uygurs with their tribes,
>and sub-tribes in the vast area between the west banks of the Yellow River in
>the east, Eastern Turkestan in the west, and in the Mongolian steppe in the
>northeast as early as 300 B.C. 6 .


> Early History


>After 210 B.C., the Uygurs played important roles in the Hun (220 B.C. - 386
>A.D.), Tabgach
>(Toba) (386-554 A.D.), and Kok Turk (552-744 A.D.) empires which were
>established in Central
>Asia 6


>In 670, 688, 692 A.D., the Uygurs, the Kok Turk and the Shato joined the
>Tibetan Armies in their military expeditions in capturing the Chinese
>invasion strongholds in north and northeast Central Asia. 8


>After the fall of the Kok-Turk Empire in Central Asia, the Uygurs established
>their first true state in
>744, with the city of Karabalgasun, on the banks of the Orkhun River, as its
>capital.


>The founder of this Uygur state was Kutluk Bilge Kul Khagan (King or Ruler).
>In 747, he was succeeded by his son Moyunchur, a powerful leader who subdued
>other Turkic clans, consolidated the monarchy, and extended his rule in the
>north to Lake Baikal, in the east to Gansu and in the southwest to India. 9


>It so happened that just as the Uygurs became united and strong, the Chinese
>Tang Dynasty under Hsuan-tsung (Xuanzong) (712-756 A.D.) was undergoing a
>sharp decline. In 751, a Chinese army was disastrously defeated at the battle
>of Talas River by the Arabs, Tibetans, and the Uygurs. In the same year, a
>Chinese invasion of the Nan-chao (Nanzhao) to the southeast was thwarted with
>appalling losses to the Chinese; and a Chinese force under An Lu Shan was
>defeated by the Khitan (Qidan) in the northeast. These disasters were but the
>prelude to a much more fearful catastrophe - the rebellion of the former
>trusted minister An Lu Shan which broke out in 755 A.D.


>It was under these circumstances that the Uygurs were invited by Su-tsung
>(Suzong), the Hsuan-tsung's (Xuanzong) successor, to send armies to help the
>Chinese. In this event, the Uygur forces played a key role in the recapture
>of both Chang-An (Chang'an) and Lo-yang (Luoyang) in 757. The Uygurs did not
>hesitate to exploit the Tang Dynastic debt owed them, by acts of appalling
>pillage. The Chinese emperor agreed to pay 20,000 rolls of silk as a tribute
>annually to the Uygurs and granted the Uygur Khagan one of his daughters in
>marriage. 10 She was the first of three princesses of the Chinese imperial
>family to become a Uygur khatun (wife) in the period 744-840 A.D. 11


>Moyunchur Khagan died in 759 and was succeeded by his son Bugu Khagan. During
>his reign, the Uygurs reached the apex of their power. They began with China,
>which engaged in forced trade of Uygur horses for Chinese silk - an exchange
>which was noted frequently in Chinese sources before 829.


>In 762 Bugu Khagan sent to the Middle Kingdom where he helped the Tang Dynasty
>in the final
>battles against the rebellion which had racked it for so long.


>In 779, Bugu Khagan was killed by his first cousin and chief minister Baga
>Tarkan. Bugu Khagan's Sogdian allies and advisors had wanted him to take
>advantage of the death in 779 of Emperor Tai-tsung (Taizong) and the state
>mourning involved in it, to undertake an invasion of China. Bugu Khagan
>agreed to do this. His first cousin Baga Tarkan opposed the plan; and when he
>saw the tide turning against him, murdered Bugu Khagan and set himself on the
>throne. Baga Tarkan, believed at this stage China could have been conquered
>by the Uygurs. But he did not believe that Uygurs would be able to preserve
>their cultural identity if they once conquered China, a vast and populous
>country even then.


>After the death of Baga Tarkan in 789 and specially after that of his
>successor, Kulug Bilge Khagan in 790, Uygur power and prestige declined


>In 795, the rule of the Uygur state passed to another clan. Under this new
>clan the Uygurs became more and more steeped in religion, which softened them
>and planted seeds of advanced culture which characterized the Uygurs of later
>ages.


>The most important ruler of this clan was Kutluk Bilge Khagan, whose
>successful military exploits, both before and during his reign, are reported
>in the Karabalgasun inscriptions. 12 He did not succeed , however, in
>restoring the Uygur empire to its former power.


>With Kutluk Bilge Khagan's death in 805, the forces of disintegration of the
>Uygur state gathered momentum. War broke out abroad with the powerful Kyrgyz
>neighbors to the north; while at home, court intrigue eroded the power of the
>royal family; rebellions broke out, and, to add to everything, a bad season
>and severe winter in 839 killed much of the livestock upon which the Uygur
>economy was so dependent. In 840, the Kyrgyz, invited by a rebel chief,
>attacked the tottering state, killed the Khagan, and took the capital.


>This first part of Uygur political history shows the Uygurs as the protectors
>of the Chinese empire for almost a century. On the other hand, the
>relationship was not really a friendly one. There was abiding resentment on
>the Chinese side. The reason was that the Middle Kingdom was obliged to be
>protected by a "barbarian" people. The Uygurs, for their part, never gave the
>Chinese the respect which the latter would have liked. 13


>After the fall of the first Uygur empire, a group of Uygurs emigrated to the
>west banks of the Yellow
>River in Kansu (Gansu); a second group emigrated via Yetti Su to the Southern
>part of Khan Tengri
>or Tianshan in Eastern Turkestan; the third and the largest group emigrated to
>the northern part of
>Khan Tengri where their ancestors are still living. 14


> The Kanchou (Ganzhou) Uygur Kingdom


>The Kanchou (Ganzhou) Uygur Kingdom, which was established in today's Kansu
>province of China, in 850, never became a major power, but the Chinese had
>great respect for it as seen from the Chinese court praise Kanchou (Ganzhou)
>Uygur King when an Uygur and a Tibetan ambassador visited the Chinese capital
>in 911. 15 . Nevertheless, this kingdom was absorbed in 1228 by the Tankuts
>who established a state in the area known as Western Hsia.


>Several thousand of these Uygurs still live in the Kansu (Gansu) area under
>the name yellow Uygurs or Yugurs, preserving their old Uygur mother tongue
>and their ancient Yellow sect of Lamaist Buddhism.


> The Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom


>The Uygurs living in the northern part of Khan Tengri (Tianshan Mountains) in
>Eastern Turkestan established the Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom (Qocho) near the
>present day city of Turfan (Turpan), in 846. 16 The Chinese recognized this
>kingdom and sent Wang Yen (Yan) De in 981 to Karakhoja as their ambassador 17
>. Wang Yen (Yan) De stayed in Karakhoja for three years.


> The Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom


>The Uygurs living in the southern part of Khan Tengri, established the
>Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom in
>840 with the support of other Turkic clans like the Karluks, Turgish and the
>Basmils, with Kashgar
>as its capital. 18


>In 934, during the rule of Satuk Bughra Khan, the Karakhanids embraced Islam
>19 . Thus, in the territory of Eastern Turkestan two Uygur kingdoms were set
>up: the Karakhanid, who were Muslims, and the Karakhojas, who were Buddhists.


>In 1397 this Islamic and Buddhist Uygur Kingdoms merged into one state and
>maintained their
>independence until 1759. 20


> Manchu Invasion


>The Manchus who set up a huge empire in China, invaded the Uygur Kingdom of
>Eastern Turkestan in 1759 and dominated it until 1862. During this period the
>Uygurs revolted 42 times against the Manchu rule with the purpose of
>regaining their independence. 21 In the last revolt of 1863, the Uygurs were
>successful in expelling the Manchus from their motherland, and founded an
>independent kingdom in 1864. The kingdom was recognized by the Ottoman
>Empire, Tsarist Russia, and Great Britain. 22 But for



...
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Von: w008802 - Profil anzeigen
Datum: Di 27 Apr. 1999 00:00
E-Mail: w008...@airmail.net
Gruppen: soc.culture.turkish, soc.culture.iranian, soc.culture.afghanistan, soc.culture.pakistan
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Why does your history below drop the Mongol period?

On Mon, 26 Apr 1999 20:55:28 GMT, farhan_siddi...@my-dejanews.com in the



- Zitierten Text ausblenden -
- Zitierten Text anzeigen -

message <7g2jru$4b...@nnrp1.dejanews.com> wrote:
>Brief History of the Uyghers

> This document was reproduced by permission from the Eastern Turkestan Union
>in Europe The addition of Pinyin spellings has been included for
>standardization. Uygur is also spelled : UIGHUR, UYGUR, UIGUR, UIGHUIR,
>UIGUIR, WEIWUER


> Introduction
> Early History
> The Kanchou (Ganzhou)Uygur Kingdom
> The Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom
> The Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom
> Manchu Invasion
> Uygur Civilization
> Uygur Script
> Uygur Literature
> Religion
> Uygur Economy
> Uygur Medicine
> Architecture, Art, Music and Printing


> Introduction


>The Uighers are the native people of Eastern Turkestan, also known as
>Xinjiang or Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The latest Chinese census gives
>the present population of the Uyghers as 7.2 million 1 . There are also
>500,000 Uygurs in Western Turkestan mostly known as Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan,
>Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan 2 . Almost 75,000 Uygurs have their
>homes in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Europe and the United
>States 3 .


>The Chinese sources indicate that the Uygurs are the direct descendants of the
>Huns 4 .


>The name "Uygur" is mentioned in the chronicles of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.
>- 220 A.D.), Wei Dynasty (265-289 A.D.), Tang Dynasty (618-906 A.D.), and
>Sung Dynasty (906-960) 5 .


>Ancient Greek, Iranian, and Chinese sources placed Uygurs with their tribes,
>and sub-tribes in the vast area between the west banks of the Yellow River in
>the east, Eastern Turkestan in the west, and in the Mongolian steppe in the
>northeast as early as 300 B.C. 6 .


> Early History


>After 210 B.C., the Uygurs played important roles in the Hun (220 B.C. - 386
>A.D.), Tabgach
>(Toba) (386-554 A.D.), and Kok Turk (552-744 A.D.) empires which were
>established in Central
>Asia 6


>In 670, 688, 692 A.D., the Uygurs, the Kok Turk and the Shato joined the
>Tibetan Armies in their military expeditions in capturing the Chinese
>invasion strongholds in north and northeast Central Asia. 8


>After the fall of the Kok-Turk Empire in Central Asia, the Uygurs established
>their first true state in
>744, with the city of Karabalgasun, on the banks of the Orkhun River, as its
>capital.


>The founder of this Uygur state was Kutluk Bilge Kul Khagan (King or Ruler).
>In 747, he was succeeded by his son Moyunchur, a powerful leader who subdued
>other Turkic clans, consolidated the monarchy, and extended his rule in the
>north to Lake Baikal, in the east to Gansu and in the southwest to India. 9


>It so happened that just as the Uygurs became united and strong, the Chinese
>Tang Dynasty under Hsuan-tsung (Xuanzong) (712-756 A.D.) was undergoing a
>sharp decline. In 751, a Chinese army was disastrously defeated at the battle
>of Talas River by the Arabs, Tibetans, and the Uygurs. In the same year, a
>Chinese invasion of the Nan-chao (Nanzhao) to the southeast was thwarted with
>appalling losses to the Chinese; and a Chinese force under An Lu Shan was
>defeated by the Khitan (Qidan) in the northeast. These disasters were but the
>prelude to a much more fearful catastrophe - the rebellion of the former
>trusted minister An Lu Shan which broke out in 755 A.D.


>It was under these circumstances that the Uygurs were invited by Su-tsung
>(Suzong), the Hsuan-tsung's (Xuanzong) successor, to send armies to help the
>Chinese. In this event, the Uygur forces played a key role in the recapture
>of both Chang-An (Chang'an) and Lo-yang (Luoyang) in 757. The Uygurs did not
>hesitate to exploit the Tang Dynastic debt owed them, by acts of appalling
>pillage. The Chinese emperor agreed to pay 20,000 rolls of silk as a tribute
>annually to the Uygurs and granted the Uygur Khagan one of his daughters in
>marriage. 10 She was the first of three princesses of the Chinese imperial
>family to become a Uygur khatun (wife) in the period 744-840 A.D. 11


>Moyunchur Khagan died in 759 and was succeeded by his son Bugu Khagan. During
>his reign, the Uygurs reached the apex of their power. They began with China,
>which engaged in forced trade of Uygur horses for Chinese silk - an exchange
>which was noted frequently in Chinese sources before 829.


>In 762 Bugu Khagan sent to the Middle Kingdom where he helped the Tang Dynasty
>in the final
>battles against the rebellion which had racked it for so long.


>In 779, Bugu Khagan was killed by his first cousin and chief minister Baga
>Tarkan. Bugu Khagan's Sogdian allies and advisors had wanted him to take
>advantage of the death in 779 of Emperor Tai-tsung (Taizong) and the state
>mourning involved in it, to undertake an invasion of China. Bugu Khagan
>agreed to do this. His first cousin Baga Tarkan opposed the plan; and when he
>saw the tide turning against him, murdered Bugu Khagan and set himself on the
>throne. Baga Tarkan, believed at this stage China could have been conquered
>by the Uygurs. But he did not believe that Uygurs would be able to preserve
>their cultural identity if they once conquered China, a vast and populous
>country even then.


>After the death of Baga Tarkan in 789 and specially after that of his
>successor, Kulug Bilge Khagan in 790, Uygur power and prestige declined


>In 795, the rule of the Uygur state passed to another clan. Under this new
>clan the Uygurs became more and more steeped in religion, which softened them
>and planted seeds of advanced culture which characterized the Uygurs of later
>ages.


>The most important ruler of this clan was Kutluk Bilge Khagan, whose
>successful military exploits, both before and during his reign, are reported
>in the Karabalgasun inscriptions. 12 He did not succeed , however, in
>restoring the Uygur empire to its former power.


>With Kutluk Bilge Khagan's death in 805, the forces of disintegration of the
>Uygur state gathered momentum. War broke out abroad with the powerful Kyrgyz
>neighbors to the north; while at home, court intrigue eroded the power of the
>royal family; rebellions broke out, and, to add to everything, a bad season
>and severe winter in 839 killed much of the livestock upon which the Uygur
>economy was so dependent. In 840, the Kyrgyz, invited by a rebel chief,
>attacked the tottering state, killed the Khagan, and took the capital.


>This first part of Uygur political history shows the Uygurs as the protectors
>of the Chinese empire for almost a century. On the other hand, the
>relationship was not really a friendly one. There was abiding resentment on
>the Chinese side. The reason was that the Middle Kingdom was obliged to be
>protected by a "barbarian" people. The Uygurs, for their part, never gave the
>Chinese the respect which the latter would have liked. 13


>After the fall of the first Uygur empire, a group of Uygurs emigrated to the
>west banks of the Yellow
>River in Kansu (Gansu); a second group emigrated via Yetti Su to the Southern
>part of Khan Tengri
>or Tianshan in Eastern Turkestan; the third and the largest group emigrated to
>the northern part of
>Khan Tengri where their ancestors are still living. 14


> The Kanchou (Ganzhou) Uygur Kingdom


>The Kanchou (Ganzhou) Uygur Kingdom, which was established in today's Kansu
>province of China, in 850, never became a major power, but the Chinese had
>great respect for it as seen from the Chinese court praise Kanchou (Ganzhou)
>Uygur King when an Uygur and a Tibetan ambassador visited the Chinese capital
>in 911. 15 . Nevertheless, this kingdom was absorbed in 1228 by the Tankuts
>who established a state in the area known as Western Hsia.


>Several thousand of these Uygurs still live in the Kansu (Gansu) area under
>the name yellow Uygurs or Yugurs, preserving their old Uygur mother tongue
>and their ancient Yellow sect of Lamaist Buddhism.


> The Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom


>The Uygurs living in the northern part of Khan Tengri (Tianshan Mountains) in
>Eastern Turkestan established the Karakhoja Uygur Kingdom (Qocho) near the
>present day city of Turfan (Turpan), in 846. 16 The Chinese recognized this
>kingdom and sent Wang Yen (Yan) De in 981 to Karakhoja as their ambassador 17
>. Wang Yen (Yan) De stayed in Karakhoja for three years.


> The Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom


>The Uygurs living in the southern part of Khan Tengri, established the
>Karakhanid Uygur Kingdom in
>840 with the support of other Turkic clans like the Karluks, Turgish and the
>Basmils, with Kashgar
>as its capital. 18


>In 934, during the rule of Satuk Bughra Khan, the Karakhanids embraced Islam
>19 . Thus, in the territory of Eastern Turkestan two Uygur kingdoms were set
>up: the Karakhanid, who were Muslims, and the Karakhojas, who were Buddhists.


>In 1397 this Islamic and Buddhist Uygur Kingdoms merged into one state and
>maintained their
>independence until 1759. 20


> Manchu Invasion


>The Manchus who set up a huge empire in China, invaded the Uygur Kingdom of
>Eastern Turkestan in 1759 and dominated it until 1862. During this period the
>Uygurs revolted 42 times against the Manchu rule with the purpose of
>regaining their independence. 21 In the last revolt of 1863, the Uygurs were
>successful in expelling the Manchus from their motherland, and founded an
>independent kingdom in 1864. The kingdom was recognized by the Ottoman
>Empire, Tsarist Russia, and Great Britain. 22 But for



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