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18-08-06, 14:18
IN MEMORY OF EAST TURKISTAN
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From: Konchuk Gangchen Gonpo - view profile
Date: Mon, Oct 6 1997 12:00 am
Email: Konchuk Gangchen Gonpo <gangchen_go...@usa.net>
Groups: talk.politics.tibet, soc.culture.china
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Eastern Turkestan Republic-1944


Some facts and figures about the Eastern Turkistan Republic formed in
1944


---------------------------------------------------------------------------*-
IN MEMORY OF EAST TURKISTAN
The day November 12, 1996, marks the 52nd anniversary of one of the
greatest
events in history of the people of Eastern Turkistan in this century,
establishment of the Eastern Turkistan Republic (ETR). Let us take a
moment
to cherish the memory of our forefather's who fought for independence
and
freedom of our nation.
On November 12, 1944, the Ghulja Liberation Organization declared the
establishment of the ETR, and voted Mr. Alikhan Tore to be its
president.
ETR government adopted a national flag, which is green with yellow
crescent
and star, representing an Islamic nature of the country.
The government published an official newspaper called Liberated East
Turkistan.
The newspaper was circulated in the entire region in Uyghur, Kazakh,
Russian
and Chinese for more than 5 years.
ETR was declared to be a democratic state with the following governing
body:


--------------------------------------
THE GOVERNMENT OF EAST TURKISTAN REPUBLIC
Position Name Nationality
Chairman Alikhan Tore Uzbek(?)
Vice chairman Ivan J. Polinov White Russian
Vice chairman Akimbay Hoja Uyghur
Secretary General Abdurup Mahsum, Uyghur


Members of the Governing Council
Akimbay Hoja Uyghur
Abdul Buti Uyghur
Ali Halife Uyghur
Abdurup Mehsum Uyghur
Kerim Haji Uyghur
Bolinov White Russian
Mansur Uyghur
Akhmetjan Khasim Uyghur
Issakhan Muraji Kirghiz
Rahimjan Sabirhaji Uyghur
Salihjanbay Babajan ?
Jumahum Kazakh (?)
Anwer Musabay Uyghur
Fujia ?
Ubulheyir Tore Uyghur
Povel P. Moskolov White Russian
Huseyin Teyji Uyghur (?)
Ministry Heads:
Ministry of Internal Affairs Rehimjan Sabirhaji, Moskolov
Ministry of Finance Anwer Musabay
Ministry of Law Muhemetjan Mehsum
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Akhmetjan Khasim
Ministry of Education Seypidin Aziz
Vice minister of Education Hamit
Ministry of Agriculture Alijan Bay
Ministry of Religious Affairs Salihjan Bay
Ministry of Propaganda Abdukerim Abbasov? Minaigen Hoja(?)
Ministry of Banking Gansip Hoja


Ministry of Health Muhettin Kanat, M.D. Kasimjan
Kembery(?)
Military affairs:
Commander of ETR forces Peter L. Aleksandrov, Ivan J. Polinov
Vice-commander Issakhan Muraji
Chief of staff Latifjan Kanat
Special Posts
Yining Police Chief Yebijan
Yining District Special Commissioner Akim Taj
Vice-commissioner Abdullah Han
Commissioner of Military Law Aini
--------------------------------------
On January 5, 1945, ETR government passed a political platform, which
stated:


1. End the Chinese dictatorial rule in the land of Eastern Turkistan.
2. Establish a free and independent Eastern Turkistan based on
equality
for all nationalities.
3. In order to fully develop East Turkistan's economy, promote
industrial,
agricultural and animal husbandry as well as private businesses.
Increase people's living standard.
4. Since the majority people of Eastern Turkistan believes Islam, so
the
government particularly advocate this religion. At the same time,
promote religious freedom for other religion.
5. Develop education, culture and health standard of Eastern
Turkistan.
6. Establish friendly relations with all the democratic countries in
the
world, especially with the neighboring USSR. In the mean time,
promote
political and economical relation with China.
7. In order to protect Eastern Turkistan's peace, recruit people of
all
nationality to establish a strong army.
8. The Bank, Post Service, Telephone and Telegraph, Forestry and all
underground wealth belong to the nation.
9. Eliminate individualism, bureaucratic idea, nationalism and
corruption
among the government officials.


Since the formation of ETR until early 1950 when Communist Chinese
government gain control over the three districts, ETR had effectively
existed for about 6 years and was a de facto independent nation.


ETR covered more then 20 percent of the region and consisted about 25
percent of the region's population, it strongly challenged the Chinese
sovereignty not only in Ghulja, Altay, Chochek three districts, but also
throughout all region of UAR.


During its administration, ETR government formed an army with about
25,000
members, the army completely wiped out the Chinese Nationalist Army
forces
from the three districts and greatly weakened the control of Nationalist
over the whole region, which according to Chinese communist sources:"
Three
region revolution contributed a great deal for the peaceful liberation
of
Xinjiang and for the victory of people's democratic revolution in whole
China."


In August, 1949, in a letter addressed to one of the leaders of ETR, Mr.
Akhmetjan Khasim, Mao Zedong wrote:


"Many years of your struggle is one of the component of whole
Chinese people's democratic revolutionary movement."


This statement implies the importance of Three Regions Revolution toward
the
establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.


It is a historical fact that Eastern Turkistan was peacefully handed
over to
the communist Chinese state. One of the main reasons is that the Chinese
government promised to give local Turkic people self-ruling power.


After 52 years, however, the reality for the indigenous people is that,
instead of gaining self determination, they were eventually deprived of
everything achieved through the Three District Revolution.


The tragic and mysterious death of the leaders of the ETR government on
August 27, 1949, signaled a decline of the ETR. 11 members of the ETR's
highest officials were reported dead as a result of an airplane crash in
the
mountains around the Soviet lake Baikal on their way to Beijing to
attend
the "Political Consultant Conference".


Shortly after this event, the Chinese government started to "clean up"
the
ETR, by, first, "promoting" higher ranking ETR officials to Urumqi and
other
regions where ETR had less influence, and second, dismissing the ETR
National Army by transforming it to agricultural units.


Most of the ETR officials who had been assigned to work in the
provincial
government were eventually prosecuted or displaced in 1950's during the
so-called "Against Right-Wing" campaign, and in 1960's during the "Great
Cultural Revolution".


Nowadays, the few "lucky" minority cadres, who have an administrative
power,
are constantly under danger of being labeled as "splittist" if they dare
to
speak up for the local people. Basically, every, more or less key,
position
in XUAR is held by a Chinese.


The ET revolution, which is described by the official Chinese historians
as
an "important component of the Chinese revolution", is only slightly
mentioned in the Chinese history textbooks. There is no single history
book
in China that talks in detail about the Eastern Turkistan Republic,
although, the country had existed for 6 years.


The Chinese government wants to erase from memories of our fathers ideas
of
the Eastern Turkistan Revolution, and makes everything possible to the
youth
of Eastern Turkistan do not know about it. It is up to us whether the
Chinese communists succeeded in this. Let us try to learn and remember
every
single moment of our history. People without history is a people without
future.