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Ruzimemet Ghupur
15-05-06, 08:35
Sherqiy Türkistan Axbarat Merkizi


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2006 - yili 5- ayning 15 - küni
Özbékistandiki Uyghurlarning Milliy Kimliki

Ruzimemet Ghupur

Yéqinqi künlerde yene shu Uyghurlar heqqidiki kishining könglini perishan qilidighan xewerler Merkizi Asiyadin tarqiliwatidu. Qazaqistan we Qirghizistan hükümetlirining xelqara qanunlargha boy sunmay, bir tereptin öz tewelikide yashawatqan Uyghurlarning insaniy heq hoquqlirigha ziyankeshlik qiliwatqanliqi, yene bir tereptin Uyghur siyasiy pana sorighuchilarni Xitaygha qayturup bériwatqanliqi küchlik démokiratik teshkilatlarning eyiplishige uchrimaqta. Özbekistan hökümiti bolsa Ötken yili mushu künlerde Perghane rayonida yüz bergen xelq inqilawini shepqetsizlerche basturup, xelqara jemiyetning qattiq naraziliqini qozghighan bolsa mana bügün Xitay hökümitige yan tayaq bolup, Kanada puqrasi Hüsenjan Qarimni (Uyghur) qanunsizlarche qolgha élip, özining kishlik hoquq we insan heqliri meseliside hechqandaq ilgirleshke érishmigenlikini ashkarilidi. Üzbek hükümiti birqanche yillardin béri, Xitayning yolsiz teleplirige könüp, Uyghurlarning kishlik hoquq, Insan heqliri we Kultural ishlirigha ayit paliyetlirini qattiq chekleydighanliqini bildürüp kelmekte.

2004-yili 15-iyunda , Hu Jintao Özbekistanni ziyaret qilip, Ularni Shanghai hemkarliqi teshkilatigha dewet qildi, 16-küni kélishimge imza qoydurdi we istirategiylik hemraliq shertnamisi tüzdi. Kélishimge asasen ikki hükümet bölgünchilikke, térorizimgha we diniy radikal küchlege birlikte qarshi turidighan bir ittipaq tüzdi. Tashkentte imzalanghan bu kélishimde, Özbekistan Xitayning teliwige asasen Uyghurlarning Insan heqliri hem kishlik hoquq we medeniyet paaliyetlirige erkin yol qoymaydighanliqi heqqide wedename bergen.

Hu Jintao bilen Islam Kerimop Uyghuristan we Özbekistandin ibaret ikki dölette yashawatqan xelqlerning bolupmu Uyghur nesillik xelqlerning musteqilliq heriketlirige “bölgünchilik, térorizim we diniy radikalizim “ dep qalpaq keydürüp jazalash heqqide qarar élishqan. Ular zerbe bérish obyekti qiliwalghan heqqaniy heriket tereptarlirigha “Sherqiy Türkistan t érorchi küchliri” digen omumiy namni bérip basturidighanliqi heqqide pütüshken.

Xitay Uyghuristan xelqining kishilik hoquq we Insan Heqlirini depsende qilishta, Insan qelipidin chiqqan wehshiylikni qollunup, Merkizi Asiyadiki qérindash jumhuriyetlirimizni pul bilen sétiwelip, özlirining rezil meqsidige yétish üchün Shanghai hemkarliqidiki Türk Jumhuriyetlirige 900,000,000 Dollar ösümsiz qerz béridighanliqini we bir Özbekistangha 2 milyon 500 ming Amerika dolliri “Insaniy yaridem” qilidighanliqini bildürgen. Shuning bilen Özbekistan hökümiti Uyghur xelqining issiq qanlirini sétip erishken payda menpietliri bilen boldi qilmay, Özlirining chigra siritidiki Uyghur weten millet dewasighimu yolsizlarche qoltiqip, Xitay döliti bilen hemkarliship Uyghuristan musteqilliq herikiti we démokiratiye heriketlirige éghir ziyan salghan.Özbekistan Merkizi Asiyadiki Uyghur nesillik xelqler eng köp olturaqlashqan döletlerning biri. Öz qerindashliri Hesaplanghan Uyghuristanliqlarning qan-yashliri bedilige Xitay Tajawuzchilliridin menpiet körüshte, Merkizi asiyadiki Türk Jumhuriyetliri oxshash xaraktérgha ége bolghandin bashqa, Özbekistan yene alayidirek paydiliq istiratigiylik dölet bolup, Özbekistanning Uyghurlargha qaratqan qattiq qol siyasiti Qazaqistan we qirghizistanlarningkidin éship ketken. Özbekistanning bashqa Türk Jumhuriyetlirige oxshimaydighan yéri, Uyghurlarning milliy kimlikige, démokirattik heriketlirige, medeniy paaliyetlirige, diniy enenillirige, milliy maaripigha zeherxendilik qilishta ipadilinidu.

Özbekistanning Uyghuristanliqlargha qaratqan yoqarqi meydani yéngidin shekillinip qalghan bir hadése bolmastin, Rusiye Ishghaliyetchilliri bu rayonni bésiwalghandin kéyin üzliksiz dawamliship kelgen. Tarixi jehettin qarighandimu Hazir 6 milyondin 7 milyongha qeder Uyghur nesillik xelq yashawatqan Perghane Rayonining, 19-esirdin kéyin Uyghuristan azatliq herikitide köp qetim özining aktip rolini jari qildurghanliqi, bu rayon xelqlirining etnik, iqtisadiy, medeniy we siyasiy jehette teqdirdash ikenlikini körsitip béridu.Bu seweptin Radikal kommunist Islam Kerimop ilgirki Rusye tajawuzchiliri we Xitaylarning enenisige warisliq qilip, Uyghur nesilik xelqlerge qaratqan érqi yeklimichilik siyasitini yürgüzüp, Özbekistan we Xitayda yashawatqan Uyghurlarning Musteqilliq heriketlirige Xitay bilen birliship turup zerbe bérip keldi. Buning bilen cheklinip qalmay medeniy–maarip, élim-pen, edebiyat- senet, til-yéziq tereptin yeklimichilik qilip, Özini Özbek milliti dep atimighan Uyghurlarni ishtin boshatti we medeniyet muessesillirini Pashistik siyaset qollinip taqiwetti.

Meyli ezeldin Özbekistanda yashawatqan Uyghurlar bolsun yaki bu yerge soda ishliri bilen kélip waqitliq olturaqliship qalghanlar bolsun Özbekistanning sotsiyal, iqtisat, medeniyet, we edebiyat- senet ishlirigha pewqullade zor ijabiy rollarni élip kelmekte. Bundaq bolishigha qarimay Özbekistandiki Uyghur nesillik xelqle we Özbekistanda kéyinki yillarda olturaqliship qalghan Uyghurlar, Uyghuristandiki xelqlerge oxshashla kishilik hoquq we Insan heqliridin mehrum bolghan halda yashawatidu. Özbekistandiki Uyghurlar Özbekistanda ezeldin yashap kelgen Uyghur nesillik xelqlerge oxshash, özlirining milliy namlirini qollinish hoquqidin mehrum qaldurulghandin bashqa, erkin pikir qilish we milliy medeniyitini tereqqiy qildurush erkinlikidin mehrum bolup yashimaqta. Buning bir ipadisi Ularning öz qérindashliri bolghan Uyghuristanliqlar bilen medeniy-maarip, soda-sanaet, pen-texnika we siyasiy-iqtisad tereplerde bolghan alaqilerdin cheklengenlikide alayide körülmekte. Ularning kishlik hoquq we siyasiy jehette yardemge muhtaj bolghan Uyghuristanliqlagha hechqandaq tereptin hésidashliq qilalmay kéliwatqanliqimu birleshken döletler teshkilatining kishilik hoquq bayannamisige Uyghun emes. Shunga biz hemmimiz Özbékistandiki kishilik hoquq we démokiratiyening baldurraq yaxshilinishini kütmektemiz.

Özbekistanning Xitay döliti bilen bolghan siyasiy we Iqtisadiy munasiwetlirining küchiyishi Özbekistandiki Uyghurlar we Uyghuristanliqlarning kündilik hayatigha barghanche passip tesir körsetip, her ikki dölette yashawatqan Uyghurlarning milliy kimlikining éghur derijide chetke qéqilishini tizletküziwetti. “Bakuning Bügüni” digen tor bétidiki N.T. Tarimining “Ghayip bolghan Uyghurlar” digen maqalida déyilishiche, Özbekistan hökümiti Özbekistandiki Uyghur nesillik xelqlerning medeniyitide Xitaygha qarishi mezmunlar ekis etken dep qarilip, bir pütün Özbek medeniyitining asasini shekillendürgen Uyghur medeniyitini chetke qaqmaqta. Özbek hökümiti Uyghurlarning neshriyatchiliq, gézit- jornal we radio- téliweziye, medeniy- maarip ishlirigha chek belgülep bermektiken.

Özbekistandiki bézi meshhur Uyghur ziyalilirining bayan qilishiche, ular Uyghur kimlikide nahayiti kichik birer medeniy paaliyetlerni orunlashturushtimu, mölcherlimigen derijide qiyinchiliqqa uchrawétiptu. Özbek hökümiti uyghurlarning iqtisadiy, siyasiy we medeniyitige ayit herqanda bir nersini neshir qilishni chekligen. Özbék hökümiti yene “Uyghur” digen namni qollinishni téximu cheklep, Özini Uyghur dep atighan meshhur shexislerge siyasiy we, iqtisadiy we jismaniy jehetlerdin ziyankeshlik qilmaqta. Türmilerge atmaqta we qestlep öltürmekte.

Özbekistan hökümiti Uyghurlargha qarshi élip bérilghan heriketni édilogiye sahesidimu élip bérip, Uyghuristan (Sherqiy Türkistan)ning tarixi, medeniyiti we edebiyat-seneti Heqqide yézilghan kitap-jornallarni neshir qilishni we ilgirkillirini oqushni chekligen. Hazir Özbekistanda ilgirkidek Uyghur tilida kitap-jornal neshir qilidighan yér yoq, hemmisi pichetliwetilgen.peqet Uyghurlargha Özbekistanning Uyghur medeniyet hadesisige qattiq qol siyasitini teshwiq qilidighan, Uyghur kimlikige kéliwatqan tehditni anglitip turidighan, Döletning Uyghur nesillik Xeliqlerning özining kélip chiqishini untulduriwetidighan, siyasitining Oyunchuqigha aylinip qalghan, Uyghur radiosining mewjut bolup turishigha, éghir siyasiy telepler astidila yol qoymaqta. Bu Radio eslide 1947-yili Sowét Ittipaqining Xitaygha qaratqan teshwiqati sewebidin qurulghan bolup, Uyghur xelqining Meniwiy hayatining muhim bir terkiwi qismi bolup kelgen. Uyghurlarning medeniyiti we siyasiy teqdirige köngül bölüp, Özbek xelqi bilen Uyghurlar we Uyghur nesillik xelqlerning otturusidiki qérindashliq we hemkarliqning simiwoli bolup kelgen. Hazir bu radio Özbek rijimining passip tesiri bilen özining shanliq enenisini dawam qilishta zor qiyinchiliqlargha duch kéliwatidu. Özbek hökümiti ulardin Sherqiy Türkistan (Uyghuristan)gha we Özbekistan Uyghurlirigha ayit herqandaq bir Insan heqliri we kishlik Hoquq meselilirige chétilidighan progirammilarni anglatmasliqni telep qilghan. Undaq qilinidiken taqiwetidighanliqini bildürgen.

Bu mutihemliklerning asasiy yiltizi wetinimiz Uyghuristanning mol yer asti bayliqliri bolup, Xitaylar uning nahayiti az bir qismi bilen diplomatiye jehettin medeniyetsiz Özbek kattillirini sétiwelip, Uyghurlarning qénida ularning qolini boyimaqta. Özbek hökümiti Uyghurlarni hakimiyet we medeniyet sahesidin chetneshtürüp boldi qilmay, Rus Kommenistliri we Xitaylarmu qollanmighan Pashistik siyasetlerni yürgüzüp, Uyghurlarning ilmiy we siyasiy jemiyetlerge uyushup hayat kechürishini cheklimekte we jénining bériche tosmaqta. Hazir qanche milyon Uyghur we Uyghur nesillik xelqler yashawatqan Özbekistanda, Uyghurlarning birermu kishilik hoquq we Insan heqlirige ayit teshkilati we jemiyetining yoq bolghnliqi, Bu rayondiki Uyghurlarning tarixta körülüp baqmighan bir jahalet ichide yashawatqanliqini körsütüp béridu.

Uyghurlar namidiki medeniyet Muessesiliri we atalmish Kultur merkezlirining her türlik heq hoquqliri ajizlashturuwetilgechke, bir qisim meshhur Uyghur ziyalilar Qirghizistan, Qazaqistan, Türkiye we gheriptiki démokirattik döletlerge kétishke mejbur bolmaqta.

Özbekistandiki bir qisim dangliq Uyghur ziyalilirining bildürishiche, Ularning heriketliri Üzbek hökümiti teripidin teqip qilinip, xelq arisidiki yüz abroyi ziyankeshlikke uchritilghan, milly medeniyet heqqidiki ilmiy tetqiqatlar, muakime yighinlar, oqutush ishliri qatarliqlardin Uyghurlar chetneshtürülgen.undaq yighinlarni échishni Xalighan Uyghur Ziyaliliri haman xoshna döletlerge bérishqa mejbur bolup qalghan. Bu ulargha meniwiy we pissoxologiy jehettin éghir zerbe élip kelgen. Özbek hökümiti Özbekistandiki Uyghur mutexesisilirining kishilik hoquq we insan heqlirini Xitay bilen bolgha démokiratik munasiwetlirining qurbani qiliwetken. Xitay dölitining “Özbek Aptonomiysige” aylinip qalghan bu dölet, Xitayning Uyghurlargha qaratqan etnik tazilash siyasitige, Xitay dölitidiki bashqa memuri rayonlargha qarighanda téximu akitip awaz qoshup, adem göshi yeydighan bir bediwi millet bilen birliship, öz qerindashlirining qénini ichmekte.

Özbekistan Xitayning zeherxendilik billen sughurilghan maliye yardimige sétilip, öz döliti tewesidiki Uyghur nesillik perghane xelqining démokirattik heriketlerni we Uyghuristan köchmenlirining weten millet dewasini “ milliy bölgünchilik”, “térorizim” we “essebiy étiqatchiliq” digen qalpaqning ichide jazalap, Xitay hökümitige örnek bolmaqta.

Uyghuristanliqlarning özlirining étnik qérindashliri bolghan Üzbekler jümlidin Perghanilikler bilen bolghan tarix, medeniyet, kultur, örpi-adet, diniy étiqat jehettiki oxshashliqi nahiti uzaq tarixqa ége. Hazir Uyghuristan (Sherqiy Türkistan) we Üzbekistan dep atiliwatqan bu ikki rayon ezeldin bir étnik yiltizgha ége xelq yashighan gughrapiylik rayon bolup, ularning tarixtin béri öz-ara kélip bérishi, medeniyet almashturishi we érqi sapliqi dawamliship kelgen. Sherqiy Uyghurlar (Uyghuristan)ning Xitay we Mungghul nesillik xelqlerning tajawuzigha uchrishi we gherbi Uyghurlarning Rusiye tajawuzigha uchrap turishi, bu rayonda yashap kelgen xelqlerning öz-ara köchüp, bir-biri bilen bolghan Uruqtuqqandarchiliqini saqlap qélishta melum ijabi rol oynighanliqi hemmimizge ayan. Uyghur Yéqinqi zaman tarixidiki bu köchishlerning birqeder tipiklirini , üch dewirge bölüsh mumkin. Bularning birinchisi: 1759-yildin 1911-yilghiche bolghan köch. Bu waqit Uyghuristanning Manju tajawuzigha qarshi heriketliri ewjige chiqqan bir dewirdur. Bu waqitta Uyghuristan xelqi Manju we Xitay qoshunlirigha qarshi teshkillik qozghilanglarni élip bérip, inqilab meghlup bolup, kollektip qetliam bashlanghanda, qozghilangchilarning rehberliri Qozghilangchilarni egeshtürüp Özbekistanning Perghane rayonidiki qérindashlirining yénigha kélip panahlanghan we bu yerning yerlik ahalisigha aylinip ketken. Bularning ikkinchisi: 20-esirning 30-yillirida yüz bergen bolup, bu dewirde Jin Shurin, Yang Zingshin we Shingshiseyning balayi apetlirige qarshi isyan kötürüp, inqilab meghlup bolghandin kéyin Uyghuristanni terik etken Uyghurlar bolup, ularmu merkizi asiyada asasliqi Perghane tüzlenglikini asas qilip olturaqlashqan. Bularning Üchünchisi: 1955-yildin 1962-yilghiche bolghan dewir bolup, bu waqitta Uyghuristanda kéyinki qétimliq jumhuriyetning hayat qalghan rehberliri Kommunist Xitaylar bilen birlikte hakimiyet bashqurup, xelqning néme ish qilishi bilen kari bolmighan. Weten-millet üchün qan kéchip küresh qilghan Uyghurlar weziyetning özlirige paydisiz haletke chüshüp qalghanliqini bilip, yene bir qétim merkezlik halda özlirining qan- qérindashliri yashaydighan Üzbekistanning perghane wadisigha köchken. Rusiye tajawuzchilliri Uyghuristandin, bu üch qétimliq köchte kelgen xelqlerni Uyghur dep atap, ilgirdin tartip bu rayonda yashap kelgen qérindashlirimizni Üzbek digen milliy kimlikni qubul qilishqa mejburlighan we kéyin u siyasetni Uyghuristandin kelgen xelqlergimu üzliksiz türde qolllunup kelgen.

Tonulghan Uyghur milletchillirining tilgha élinishiche, Merkizi Asiyaning kéyinki ikki üch yüz yili ichide Uyghur xelqidek wehshetlik tiragédiyeni bashtin kechürgen yene bir xelq yoq. “Ghayip bolghan köchmen Uyghurlar” digen maqalining apturi N.T.Tarimning bayan qilishigha qarighanda Merkizi Asiyadiki Uyghur meselisi küchlük bir politik mesile bolup, 1920-yili Uyghurlarning ichidin yétiship chiqqan siyasiy erbap Abdulla Ruzibaki üch qétimliq köchtin kéyin Merkizi Asiyagha, asasliqi Özbekistanning perghane rayonigha Kélip olturaqlashqan Uyghuristanliqlarning 600,000 ikenlikini jakarlighan. 1930-yiligha kelgendiki Sowét hökümiti élan qilghan bir istatiskida bu san bir hesse töwenlitilip, 300,000 gha chüshürüp qoyulghan. 1937-yildiki Pashist Istalin qozghighan “ eksil inqilabchilargha zerbe bérish” herikitide merkizi asiyadiki heriketning tigh uchi Uyghurlargha qaritilip, Uyghurlardin yétiship chiqqan yurt kattilliri qirghin qilinghan we hayat qalghanlarni qeyerde yashawatqan bolsa shu rayondiki xelqlerning milli kimliki bilen özini atashqa mejbur qilinghan. 1950- we 1960-yilgha kelgende Uyghur digen namni qollinish cheklengen we qollanghanlar kemsitilish we siyasiy yekleshke uchrighan.1979-yilgha kelgendiki Sowét hökümitining bir istatiskiliq melumatidin qarighanda eslidimu kémeytip éytilghan 600,000 digen san 29,104 ke, 1989-yilgha kelgende 35,700 ge chüshürüp qoyulghan. Hazir Özbekistanda heqiqiten zadi qanche Uyghur yashawatqanliqi heqqideki melumatni hökümet yoshuridu we yalghan sanliq melumat béridu. Melum bir ismini ashkarilashni xalimaydighan Uyghur ziyalisi bilen Qazaqistandiki Uyghuristan Azatliq herikiti teshkilatnining reyisi Qehriman Ghujamberdining Erkin asiya radiosida bildürishiche, Bir Özbekistandila Özlirini mexpiy halette bolsimu Uyghur dep ataydighanlarning sani 1 milyon 500 mingdin ashidiken.

Éniq halda milliy kimliki bilen yashawatqanlar 200,000 din ashidiken. Özbekistan penler akademiysidiki Bir professor Uyghurning éytishiche özbekistanda Özlirining milliy kimlikini ochuq ashkare halda qoghdap qalghan Uyghurlarning 500,000 din kem emeslikini ashkarilighan.

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Sowét hökümiti Uyghurlarni tarix sehipisidin öchürüsh üchün, eqliy we eskiri tereptin programmiliq bir pilanni yolgha qoyghan. Dawamliq tarixning buran chapqunliridin aman-ésen qalghan Uyghurlar Merkizi Asiyadiki murekkep politik problemlar qaynimigha aylinip qalghan. Radikal kommenist Islam Kerimop Uyghur we Uyghur nesillik xelqlege, Ruslarning 200 yildin béri qollinip kéliwatqan pashistik politikisigha warisliq qilghan halda muamile qilip, “reqipning yéghini reqibining qoli bilen qorush” taktikisini qollinip kelmekte.

Paydilanghan Materiyallar:

(1) Aptor N.T.Tarimning “Editor@bakutoday.net” de élan qilinghan “Disappearing Diaspora in Uzbekistan: the Uyghurs” digen maqalisi.
(2) Sherqiy Türkistan information merkizining yilliq doklatliri.
(3) Özbekistangha ayit Internit sehipilliri.
(4) Xitayning “shangxey hemkarliqi” teshkilatigha ayit xewerliri.
(5) RFA ning Uyghurche Merkizi Asiya heqqidiki anglitishliri.
(6) BBC ning 2005-yilqi qanliq Perghane weqesige ayit xewerler.

15/05/06 Gérmaniye

kochiriwalghuchi
15-05-06, 09:26
Özbekistandiki milliy kimlikini unutqan Uyghurlar

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Disappearing Diaspora in Uzbekistan;The Uyghurs

Azerbaijan
by N.T.Tarimi

Recently, bad news for Uyghurs came from the heartland of Central Eurasia. The Uzbek authorities agreed to Chinese demands to further clamp down on any activity of Uyghurs in Uzbekistan that has a flavor of supporting and advocating human rights and greater political as well as cultural rights for the Uyghurs in East Turkistan (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).

On June 15, 2004, Chinese President Hu Jintao visited Uzbekistan to take part in the summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, which is scheduled to begin on June 16 in Tashkent. During the visit, Hu and his Uzbek counterpart Islam Karimov signed a joint statement on further developing a partnership of friendly cooperation between their two countries. According to the joint statement, “China and Uzbekistan agreed that terrorism, separatism, and extremism still pose a major threat to regional security and stability. China and Uzbekistan will, in accordance with Shanghai Cooperation Organization on Combating Terrorism , Separatism and Extremism and the China-Uzbekistan Agreement on Cooperation in Combating Terrorism, Separatism, and Extremism, further strengthen coordination and cooperation among relevant agencies of both countries and continue to adopt powerful measures to fight all forms of terrorism, including terrorism waged buy the so-called \"East Turkistan terror groups\" in order to engender peace and tranquility in the two countries and in the region. The two countries agreed that the crackdown on the \"terrorist forces of East Turkistan\" is a major part of the international anti-terrorism campaign “.

China also announced it would give Central Asian countries US$900million in credits and gave Uzbekistan about US$2.5 million in humanitarian assistance.

According to Uyghur intellectuals in Uzbekistan, Uzbek authorities will strengthen their control over any activities of Uyghurs in Uzbekistan and other Central Asian republics. New Sino-Uzbek cooperation against the Uyghur movement for independence and democracy will cast a dark shadow over the future of Uyghur people.



Uzbekistan is one of the countries in Central Asia, which has a large number of the Uyghur diaspora. Uzbekistan’s stance on this matter is unique in Central Asia. Although other Central Asian countries, particularly Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, have also curtailed and limited Uyghur movements of the same character, they did allow Uyghurs to carry out some activity within the boundary of their existing laws. However, Uzbekistan has not given any chance for Uyghurs to organize in support of their ethnic brothers in East Turkistan.

Uzbekistan’s stance on this issue is not new. It is a historical fact that the Ferghana Valley has been a rear base for the Uygur national liberation movement since the 19th century. Uzbek -Uyghur relations in the fields of politics, economics, and culture has affected Uygur liberation movements throughout history. Well aware of these facts, Uzbek authorities, just after the country’s independence, closely monitored the Uyghur movements that were gaining momentum in its territory. Fearing that Uyghur movements in Uzbekistan, which are aimed at supporting the Uyghurs’ struggle against the Chinese government, would negatively affect Sino-Uzbek relations, the Uzbek government has clamped down on the Uyghur movements since independence.

The Uygurs of Uzbekistan have made significant contributions to the development of social, economic, and cultural life in Uzbekistan. Today, as citizens of Uzbekistan, they are faithfully fulfilling their civic duties and roles. However, the Uyghurs in Uzbekistan are currently going through rough times. Just like other people in Uzbekistan, their freedom of speech and expression are severely curtailed by the current Uzbek regime. Their freedom to carry out political and human rights campaigns aimed at supporting the political, social, and cultural rights of their ethnic brethren in East Turkistan is particularly severely restricted. Uyghurs thus feel the need of democratization in Uzbekistan even stronger.

Following the intensification of economic and political relations between Uzbekistan and China and the entry of Uzbekistan into the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Uyghurs’ problem has increasingly come under the spotlight. The Uzbek government has prohibited pro-Uygur and anti-Chinese messages in the state and any other media outlets. According to some Uyghurs in Uzbekistan, who asked not to be identified, the Uyghur press in Uzbekistan has encountered severe restrictions. The Uzbek press refuses to publish papers, in which the political problems of the Uyghurs are mentioned. Furthermore, the importing of books and newspapers and any other publications concerning to East Turkistan, which are published in Turkey, Germany and other countries, is now prohibited. Hence, there is no publishing house in Uzbekistan that publishes literature in the Uyghur language. Only a short Uyghur service is allowed on Uzbek Radio and is conducted under strict control. Actually the Uyghur radio service was created in 1947 and used as a tool for its anti-China purposes. The current Uyghur radio service is the continuation of that old service but operates under a very different mandate. Anything about Uyghur human rights issues or political problems in East Turkistan is not allowed to be broadcast.

The restrictions on the Uyghur movement in Uzbekistan came into force in 1994 after the visit of Chinese premier Li Peng to the country and the signing of a bilateral agreement between the two governments. Since then, establishment of Uyghur organizations that advocate human rights and independence for the people in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is prohibited. Therefore, there are currently no Uyghur political organizations in Uzbekistan. Only the Uyghur Cultural Center is functioning as a non-political organization. This is in sharp contrast to other Central Asian Republics, specifically Kirghizstan and Kazakhstan, where Uyghurs are allowed to organize into political organizations. According to some Uyghur intellectuals in Uzbekistan, who wanted to remain anonymous, Uygurs are not even allowed to participate in conferences and meetings about Uygur issues which are held in other countries. The Uzbekistan government considers any pro-Uyhgur activities in Uzbekistan or by Uzbek citizens as harmful to Sino-Uzbek relations and Uzbek national interests. After joining the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Uzbek government quickly responded to the call of Chinese government to crack down on terrorism, ethnic separatism and religious fundamentalism. By actively supporting China’s crackdown on Uyghur independence movements, Uzbekistan wanted to get China’s help in its own fight against Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.


As a people united by its national origin, history, culture and tradition, Uyghurs have a relatively long history in Uzbekistan. From the second half of eighteenth century they began migrating to the land which is now called Uzbekistan. The majority of immigration took place in the following three different periods. The first period was between 1759-1911. This is the period in which Uygurs periodically revolted against Manchu rulers. In this period, many Uyghurs migrated to the Ferghana Valley to escape Manchu-Chinese persecution. The second period is from the beginning of 20th century to 1937. During this period, many Uyghurs came to Uzbekistan in search of a better life. The third period is between 1955 and 1962. In this period, many Uygurs who were against the deal reached between their leaders and Chinese Communist government and who were skeptical of Chinese communist rule in East Turkistan (Xinjiang) moved to Uzbekistan.

The exact number of Uygur population in Central Asia has been a very contentious issue. In the 1920s, Abdulla Rozibakiyev, one of the Uyghur leaders of that time, asserted that the Uyghur population in Soviet Central Asia was 600,000, the majority of which was living in Uzbekistan. According to official Soviet demographic information in 1930s, there were about 300,000 Uyghurs living in the Soviet Union at that time. In 1937, during the Stalin’s campaign of purging \"counter-revolutionaries\" across the Soviet Union, many Uyghurs were forced to change their ethnic affiliation. There is no precise information concerning the number of Uyghurs living in Uzbekistan during the period 1950-60. Soviet official statistics in 1979 put the Uyghur population at 29,104 and official statistics in 1989 put that number at 35,700. Today, there is no official data on the number of Uyghurs in Uzbekistan, however, Uygur intellectuals in Uzbekistan assert that a great number of Uyghurs live in Uzbekistan. One member of the Uygur Cultural Center of Uzbekistan said that approximately 200,000 Uygurs live in Uzbekistan. And according to a Uyghur professor of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, who did not to be named, there are approximately 500,000 Uyghurs currently living in Uzbekistan.

In the beginning of 20th century, Uyghurs in Uzbekistan enjoyed a brief renaissance in art and literature. The cities of Tashkent and Andijan became the main centers of Uygur culture. The first Uyghur language newspaper \"Kembigheller Avazi\"(the Voice of Poor) was published in these two cities in 1921. The first Uyghur novel written by Momen Hamraev (1907-1955) was published in Tashkent in 1930. Following in the footsteps of Hamraev, other Uyghur novelists such as Nur Israilova(1910-1953), Abdulla Muhammadi(1901-1937) and Omar Muhammadi (1906-1931), published outstanding works of Uyghur literature. A new genre of free verse in Uygur poetry was introduced by Uyghur poets such as Hezim Iskandarov (1906-1970) and Hebib Zakiri(?-1937) during this period. The State Uyghur Theater of Uzbekistan was created in Andijan in 1930 and soon the motion picture industry was also created with the participation of Uyghur actors. A series of drama performances were presented in the theater. Also Uyghur technical schools were established in Andijan in 1930.

However, the Uyghur cultural renaissance in Uzbekistan did not last long. In 1937-1938, during Stalin`s campaign of purges, Uyghur cultural centers and activities became targets for persecution. In this campaign, a great number of Uyghur scholars were arrested and executed, Uyghur cultural centers, theaters, newspapers and schools in Tashkent and Andijan were closed. Uyghur cultural organizations were moved to Kazakhstan.

However, following the Sino-Soviet break in the 1960s, the Soviet government restored Uygur cultural centers in Uzbekistan. Tashkent became a center of anti-Chinese propaganda that targeted the Uyghur population in Xinjiang. Uygur theaters, radio stations and other centers in Tashkent became very active. The Uyghur radio service in Tashkent broadcast two hours exclusively for the audience in Xinjiang. The Soviet government launched Uyghur study programs in the Institute of Oriental Studies of State Academy and Tashkent State University. All this had a profound impact on the Uyghurs’ independence sentiment in Xinjiang. As mentioned earlier, all of the Uyghur activity in Uzbekistan came to an end following the collapse of Soviet Union.

Today, the Uyghurs are recognized as an ethnic minority in the Republic of Uzbekistan. However, their right to establish cultural and political organizations was severely restricted and vehemently opposed by the Uzbek government. Uyghurs in Uzbekistan are not allowed to form or join political organizations that advocate independence for Xinjiang. Uyghurs are even restricted from attending political activities in other countries, which is related the East Turkistan. As a result, there are no Uyghur political or social organizations in Uzbekistan which advocate and support human rights and greater political and cultural rights for Uygurs in East Turkistan. The Uyghur movement in Uzbekistan is in a stage of hibernation.

After September 11, Uzbekistan became an important ally in American’s war on terror. The Uzbek government provided military bases for American’s war in Afghanistan. Since then, US-Uzbek relations in the spheres of politics, economics, and military cooperation have grown significantly. Relations with the United States have become one of the cornerstones of Uzbekistan’s foreign policy. Unlike other Central Asian countries, Uzbekistan previously refused to participate in any regional organizations, except for the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, led by Russia. The international community hoped that closer US-Uzbek relations would help change the autocratic character of the Uzbek regime and make it more democratic and respectful of human rights. However, two years later nothing has changed in the Uzbek regime’s treatment of its dissidents and in its human rights records.

After September 11, China is using its economic power to strengthen cooperation with Central Asian countries and crack down on Uyghur political activities in the region, under the false cover of fighting terrorism, separatism, and extremism.

Asiya Times
15-05-06, 10:26
http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/FG30Ag01.html






















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Central Asia

China-Uzbek pact bad news for Uighurs
By N T Tarimi

Bad news for the Uighurs and their aspirations for genuine autonomy, democracy or even independence came recently from the heartland of Central Eurasia. Uzbek authorities bowed to Chinese demands to further clamp down on any Uighur activity that appears to support and advocate human rights and greater political and cultural rights for the Uighurs in what they call East Turkestan, but China calls the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region.

On June 15, Chinese President Hu Jintao visited Uzbekistan to take part in the summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, which began on June 16 in Tashkent. During the visit, Hu and his Uzbek counterpart Islam Karimov signed a joint statement on further developing friendly cooperation and partnership.

According to the joint statement, "China and Uzbekistan agreed that terrorism, separatism, and extremism still pose a major threat to regional security and stability. China and Uzbekistan will, in accordance with Shanghai Cooperation Organization on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism and the China-Uzbekistan Agreement on Cooperation in Combating Terrorism, Separatism, and Extremism, further strengthen coordination and cooperation among relevant agencies of both countries and continue to adopt powerful measures to fight all forms of terrorism, including terrorism waged buy the so-called 'East Turkestan terror groups' in order to engender peace and tranquility in the two countries and in the region. The two countries agreed that the crackdown on the 'terrorist forces of East Turkestan' is a major part of the international anti-terrorism campaign."

China also announced it would give Central Asian countries US$900 million in credits and it gave Uzbekistan about $2.5 million in humanitarian assistance. The two countries are close but they do not share a common border.

According to Uighur intellectuals in Uzbekistan, Uzbek authorities will strengthen their control over any activities of Uighurs in Uzbekistan and other Central Asian republics. New Sino-Uzbek cooperation against the Uighur movement for independence and democracy will cast a shadow over the future of Uighur people who have migrated to Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan has a large number of what is called the Uighur diaspora. Uzbekistan's stance on this matter is unique in Central Asia. Although other Central Asian countries, particularly Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, have also curtailed and limited Uighur movements of the same character, they did allow Uighurs to carry out some activity within the boundary of their existing laws. However, Uzbekistan has not given Uighurs the right to organize in support of their ethnic brothers in East Turkestan, or Xinjiang.

Uzbekistan's position on the issue is not new. It is a historical fact that the Ferghana Valley has been a rear base for the Uighur national liberation movement since the 19th century. Uzbek-Uighur relations in politics, economics, and culture have affected Uighur liberation movements throughout history. Well aware of these facts, Uzbek authorities, just after the country's independence from the former Soviet Union, closely monitored the Uighur movements that were gaining momentum in its territory. Fearing that Uzbekistan's Uighur movements, which support the Uighurs' struggle against the Chinese government, would negatively affect Sino-Uzbek relations, the Uzbek government has clamped down on the Uighur movements since independence.

The Uighurs of Uzbekistan have made significant contributions to the development of social, economic, and cultural life in Uzbekistan. Today, as citizens of Uzbekistan, they are fulfilling their civic duties and roles. However, the Uighurs in Uzbekistan are currently going through rough times. Just like other people in Uzbekistan, their freedom of speech and expression are severely curtailed by the current Uzbek regime. Their freedom to carry out political and human rights campaigns aimed at supporting the political, social, and cultural rights of their ethnic brethren in East Turkestan, or Xinjiang, is severely restricted. Uighurs therefore feel the need of democratization in Uzbekistan even more intensely than some Uzbeks.

Uzbeks ban pro-Uighur, anti-China messages
Following the intensification of economic and political relations between Uzbekistan and China and the entry of Uzbekistan into the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Uighur problem increasingly has been spotlighted and scrutinized. The Uzbek government has prohibited pro-Uighur and anti-Chinese messages in the state and any other media outlets. According to some Uighurs in Uzbekistan, who asked not to be identified, the Uighur press in Uzbekistan has been severely restricted. The Uzbek media refuses to publish papers which mention the political problems of the Uighurs. Furthermore, the importing of books and newspapers and any other publications concerning East Turkestan, or Xinjiang, which are published in Turkey, Germany and other countries, is now prohibited. Hence, there is no publishing house in Uzbekistan that publishes literature in the Uighur language.

Only a short Uighur service is allowed on Uzbek Radio and is strictly controlled. Actually the Uighur radio service was created in 1947 and used as a tool for anti-China propaganda, but the situation has changed. The current Uighur radio service is the continuation of that old service but it operates under a very different mandate. Anything about Uighur human rights issues or political problems in East Turkestan, or Xinjiang, is not allowed to be broadcast.

The restrictions on the Uighur movement in Uzbekistan came into force in 1994 after the visit of Chinese premier Li Peng to the country and the signing of a bilateral agreement between the two governments. Since then, establishment of Uighur organizations that advocate human rights and independence for the people in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region is prohibited. Therefore, there are currently no Uighur political organizations in Uzbekistan. Only the Uighur Cultural Center is functioning as a non-political organization.

This is in sharp contrast to other Central Asian Republics, specifically Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, where Uighurs are allowed to organize into political organizations. According to some Uighur intellectuals in Uzbekistan, who spoke on condition of anonymity, Uighurs are not even allowed to participate in conferences and meetings about Uighur issues that are held in other countries. The Uzbekistan government considers any pro-Uighur activities in Uzbekistan or by Uzbek citizens as harmful to Sino-Uzbek relations and Uzbek national interests. After joining the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Uzbek government quickly responded to the call of the Chinese government to crack down on terrorism, ethnic separatism and religious fundamentalism. By actively supporting China's crackdown on Uighur independence movements, Uzbekistan wanted to get China's help in its own fight against the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.

As a people united by national origin, history, culture and tradition, Uighurs have a relatively long history in Uzbekistan. From the second half of 18th century they began migrating to the land which is now called Uzbekistan. The majority of immigration took place in three periods. The first period was between 1759-1911. This is the period in which Uighurs periodically revolted against Manchu rulers. In this period, many Uighurs migrated to the Ferghana Valley to escape Manchu-Chinese persecution. The second period was from the beginning of the 20th century to 1937. During this period, many Uighurs went to Uzbekistan in search of a better life. The third period was between 1955 and 1962. In this time, many Uighurs who were against the deal reached between their leaders and the Chinese communist government and who were skeptical of Chinese communist rule in East Turkestan or Xinjiang moved to Uzbekistan.

Number of Uighurs in Central Asia unknown
The exact size of the Uighur population in Central Asia has been a very contentious issue. In the 1920s, Abdulla Rozibakiyev, one of the Uighur leaders of that time, asserted that the Uighur population in Soviet Central Asia was 600,000, the majority of whom were living in Uzbekistan. According to official Soviet demographic information in the 1930s, there were about 300,000 Uighurs living in the Soviet Union at that time. In 1937, during Stalin's campaign of purging "counter-revolutionaries" across the Soviet Union, many Uighurs were forced to change their ethnic affiliation. There is no precise information concerning the number of Uighurs living in Uzbekistan from 1950-1960. Official Soviet statistics in 1979 put the Uighur population at 29,104 and official statistics in 1989 put that number at 35,700. Today, there is no official data on the number of Uighurs in Uzbekistan, however, Uighur intellectuals in Uzbekistan assert that a great number of Uighurs live there. One member of the Uighur Cultural Center of Uzbekistan said that approximately 200,000 Uighurs are living in Uzbekistan. And according to a Uighur professor of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, who asked not to be identified, approximately 500,000 Uighurs currently are living in Uzbekistan.

In the beginning of the 20th century, Uighurs in Uzbekistan enjoyed a brief renaissance in art and literature. The cities of Tashkent and Andijan became the main centers of Uighur culture. The first Uighur language newspaper Kembigheller Avazi (the Voice of Poor) was published in these two cities in 1921. The first Uighur novel, written by Momen Hamraev (1907-1955), was published in Tashkent in 1930. Following in the footsteps of Hamraev, other Uighur novelists such as Nur Israilova (1910-1953), Abdulla Muhammadi (1901-1937) and Omar Muhammadi (1906-1931), published important works of Uighur literature. A new genre of free verse in Uighur poetry was introduced by Uighur poets such as Hezim Iskandarov (1906-1970) and Hebib Zakiri (who died in 1937) during this period. The State Uighur Theater of Uzbekistan was created in Andijan in 1930 and soon the motion picture industry was also created with the participation of Uighur actors. A series of dramatic performances were presented. Uighur technical schools also were established in Andijan in 1930.

However, the Uighur cultural renaissance in Uzbekistan did not last long. In 1937-1938, during Stalin's campaign of purges, Uighur cultural centers and activities became targets for persecution. In this campaign, a great number of Uighur scholars were arrested and executed, Uighur cultural centers, theaters, newspapers and schools in Tashkent and Andijan were closed. Uighur cultural organizations were moved to Kazakhstan.

However, following the Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s, the Soviet government restored Uighur cultural centers in Uzbekistan. Tashkent became a center of anti-Chinese propaganda that targeted the Uighur population in Xinjiang. Uighur theaters, radio stations and other centers in Tashkent became very active. The Uighur radio service in Tashkent broadcast two hours daily, exclusively for the audience in Xinjiang. The Soviet government launched Uighur study programs in the Institute of Oriental Studies of State Academy and Tashkent State University. All this had a profound impact on the Uighurs' independence sentiment in Xinjiang. As mentioned earlier, all of the Uighur activity in Uzbekistan came to an end following the collapse of Soviet Union.

Today, the Uighurs are recognized as an ethnic minority in the Republic of Uzbekistan. However, their right to establish cultural and political organizations was and still is severely restricted and vehemently opposed by the Uzbek government. The Uighur movement in Uzbekistan is in a stage of hibernation.

After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States, Uzbekistan became an important ally in America's war on terror. The Uzbek government provided military bases for the US war in Afghanistan. Since then, US-Uzbek relations in politics, economics, and military cooperation have grown significantly. Relations with the US have become one of the cornerstones of Uzbekistan's foreign policy. Unlike other Central Asian countries, Uzbekistan previously refused to participate in any regional organizations, except for the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, led by Russia. The international community hoped that closer US-Uzbek relations would help change the autocratic character of the Uzbek regime and make it more democratic and respectful of human rights. However, two years later nothing has changed in the Uzbek regime's treatment of its dissidents and in its own human rights record.

After September 11, China has been using its economic power to strengthen cooperation with Central Asian countries and crack down on Uighur political activities in the region, using the excuse of fighting terrorism, separatism, and extremism.

This article was first published by Baku Today.



Jul 30, 2004







--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


$18 million slap on wrist for Uzbekistan
(Jul 17, '04)

Why terrorism bypasses China's far west
(Apr 23, '04)

Xinjiang and China's Central Asia strategy
(Apr 3, '04)

Uzbekistan: sifting for clues (Apr 2, '04)

With friends like Uzbekistan ... (Apr 1, '04)
















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