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Turdi Ghoja
08-01-12, 10:40
Menggulik Hesrette Qalghan Adem
Bir Uyghur Amma Uchun Muzika Ishleydu

Waqit Jornili, 2002-Yil 25-Mart

MATTHEW FORNEY

Abdurehim Xinjiangning Bob Dylanni bolishi kirek idi. Uning yeqinda chiqqan “Miras” isimlik keng alqishqa irishken kasettisining muqawida 40 yashliq muzikantning qoyaq saqal we keshtilik Uyghurche kiyim bilen Zhongguning yiraq gherbidiki qumluqta kitiwatqan toge karvinining aldida turup koz nuri upuqta tiz yoqiliwatqan bir mediyetni izdewatqandek korinidighan bir resimi qoyulghan. U koz-yeshining munchighi sheklidiki sazghu Duttarning piri. Tuttar asasen hemme Uyghur oghulliri erge aylinish sepirining bir yerliride choqum uginidighan saz. Abdurehim nazuk timilar ustide nahsha oquydu, meslen itaetmenlik we oyghunish digendek. Likin yiraqtiki Beijing teripidin bashqurilidighan Xinjiangda Dylangha anche orun yoq idi. Abdurehim orunlimighili nechche ay boldi. U sorunlarda nahsha oqushi, yurt arilap oyun qoyup Xinjiangning Duttar qehrimani bolishi kirek idi. Uning ornigha u peqet qattiq bashqurilidighan bir senet omigining bir ezasi supitidila nahsha oquyalaydu. Bu omekte u kop yillardin biri hetta uzi halaydighan sazni chalidighan erkinligimu yoq. Uning bezi nahshillirining liriklirida dinni mene bar. Likin bu nahshilarni u peqet oyidila oquyalaydu. Bashqurghuchilar ularni kasetke chiqarmaydu, koz-qulaqlar ammiwi sorunlarda orunlatmaydu

Bashqa izilgen helqler, meslen Irlandiyelikler, Siganlar we Yehudilardek Uyghurlarmu muzikidin kuch-quwet alidu. Ular uruq-tuqqanlirining qewrilliride dinni nahshilarni oqusa haraq ichkende mungluq nahshilarni oquydu. Her bir yiza oyide digudek bulingda bir chalghu eswabi topa qonmighan tarliri tengshelgen halda turidu. Uyghurlar ozlirini bashqa Ottur Asiyaliqlardin Muqam arqiliq perqlenduridu. Muqam 15-esirde bir hanishe teripidin toplap retlengen 350 nahshidin terkip tapqan destur bolup Uyghurning tarihi deqiqillirini muzikilashturghan. Hetta bugun Zhongu Hokimitining cheklimisi astidimu Uyghurlar konglini muzik arqilip ipadilep birlikni bezide bolgunchilikni terghip qilidu.

Abdurehimning diyishiche uning kureshliri peqet sen’et uchunken, peqet uzi chong bolghan muzikni orunlashnila izdeydiken. U Qeshqerde 40 yil burun bu chimenzardiki chayhanilar Hanzu melillirige aylinishtin kop ilgiri tughulghan. U alte yash wahtidin bashlapla duttar uginishke bashlighan. “Kochilarda mangsam yol boyi muzika uzulmeyti,” didi u. On yette yeshida hokimetke qarashliq bir muzika mektiwige kiridu, emma u mektepte ugengenliri uning uchun bek yat tuyulidu. “Ular mini Italiyelik Opera nahshichilliridek nahsha oqu deyti, emma Uyghur muzikisi undaq bolmisa. Men hech nersini ugenmidim.”

Uning tebi talanti bek rushen bolghachqa u Beijingdiki Azsanliq Milletler Nahsha-Usul Omigige iwetilidu. Bu omek Zhongguning kop milletligini ipadilesh uchun qurulghan “It is a small world” qa ohshap kitidighan yerti*. U 20 yil Tibetlerning sunaychilliri, Mongollarning ikki notini tengla chiqiralaydighan Qumei nahshichilliri bilen yanmu-yan turup oyun qoyidu. Ikki yil aldida Abdurehim Xinjianggha yenggishlinishni telep qilip qaytip kilip “Miras” kesetisini chiqiridu. Bu lintide uning awazi bilen duttarla bar. Aptunum Rayunluq Hokimet teripidin bashqurilidighan neshiryatlar uning Islam toghruluq nahsha oqushigha ruhset qilmaydu, emma beshwah namazni tashlimaydighan Abdurehim bu lintini u chiqarghan 12 ning ichidiki eng yahshisi dep qaraydu. Bu linta putun aptunum rayunda ittik setiliptu. Uning neziride bu kesettiki eng yahshi nahsha “Bulum” iken. Tikisti “Dunyada bulumdek yar yoq/ gummanni qoy/ ette seningdin namrat adem bolmaydu/ peqet baylar, qerz yighidighan adem yoq.” Yene bir nahshining ismi “Horaz” bolup kishilerni uzun hem qarangghu kichidin oyghitishni mezmun qilghan. Studenlar Hanzuche sozleshke mejburlanghan, wetenperwerlik dersini oquwatqan imamlar uzining halighinini tedbiqlaydu.

Mushu kunlerde Abdurehimning qoli toshuq. Uning omigi bultur Qeshqerde oyun qoydi. U 45 minutliq nomirini orunlap bolup telepler boyiche yene ohshash uzunluqqa sozulghan nomurlarni orunlap berdi. U hazir bir yurish yengi nahshilarni lintige eliwetiptu. Emma u muresselishishke mejbur bolidu, nahsha lirikliri ustidila emes. Uning ihshanisining sirtidiki qara daskigha uning yengi omigining partiye komtiti eng yengi shuarini shaptul chichiki, seriq we kok gejde yezip qoyghan idi: BOLGUNCHILIKKE QARSHI TERBIYENI KETTI KUCHEYTEYLI. Ikki yilning aldida u “Miras” kasetisining muqawisigha resimge chushkendin kiyin uning yengi idarisining bashliqi bek dinchi korisitip qoyuptu dep burtini mejburi aldurwetidu. Uyghurlarning awazigha wekillik qilghan herqandaq adem bugunki kunde beshini tuwen tutishinggha toghra kilidu.

* “It is a small world” digen Disney baghchillirida bolidighan kichik ballarning kinoliridiki turlik pursunajlar jemleshken bir oy-ichi oyun kimisi (terjimandin)
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Man of Constant Sorrow

One Uighur makes music for the masses
Timeasia.com, March 25, 2002
www.time.com/time/asia/features/xinjiang/culture.html

By MATTHEW FORNEY

Abdurihim should be the Bob Dylan of Xinjiang. The cover of his latest popular cassette, Legacy, shows the 40-year-old musician with heavy beard and embroidered Uighur garb standing before a camel train in the desert of far western China, his gaze in search of a culture fast receding beyond the vanishing point. He's a virtuoso on the teardrop-shaped dutar, an instrument Uighur boys almost universally learn on the way to becoming men. He sings about touchy subjects such as servility and reawakening.

But in a Xinjiang dominated from far-off Beijing, there's not much of a place for a local Dylan. Abdurihim hasn't performed in months. He should be booking gigs, touring, becoming the dutar hero of Xinjiang. Instead, when he does play, it is as a member of song-and-dance troupes controlled so tightly that for years he wasn't allowed to play the instrument of his choice. Some of his lyrics have religious overtones, but he can only sing them in his living room—censors won't allow them on cassettes and apparatchiks forbid them to be performed in public.

Like other oppressed peoples in history—the Irish, Gypsies, Jews—Uighurs draw strength from music. They sing religious songs at the tombs of their relatives, sentimental songs when they drink. An instrument stands in the corner of nearly every rural home, dust-free and in tune. Uighurs distinguish themselves from other Central Asian groups through the Maqam, a canon of 350 songs collected by a Uighur princess in the 15th century that sets moments of Uighur history to music. Even with the limits imposed by the Chinese government, Uighurs still express themselves through music in which they hear messages of unity—and sometimes of separatism.

Abdurihim's struggle, he says, is purely artistic: to perform the music he grew up with. He was born in Kashgar 40 years ago, long before teahouses on the oasis yielded to new Chinese neighborhoods. He began studying the dutar when he was six years old. "I'd walk the streets hearing music and strumming the air," he says. At 17 he enrolled in a state-run music school, but the education was too foreign. "They wanted me to sing like an Italian opera star, which isn't what Uighur music sounds like. I learned nothing."

His innate skills were so apparent the school sent him to Beijing to join the Central Minorities Song and Dance Troupe, a kind of It's a Small World review meant to celebrate China's diversity. For two decades, he performed alongside such acts as Tibetan trumpeters and Mongolian khoomei singers, who can produce two tones at the same time.

Two years ago, Abdurihim arranged a transfer back to Xinjiang and released the stark Legacy, which features only his voice and dutar. The publishing house, controlled by the provincial government, wouldn't allow him to sing about Islam, but Abdurihim, who prays five times a day, still considers the collection the best of the dozen that he's released, and it has sold briskly across the province. His best song on the cassette, he says, is Knowledge: "Among the world's offerings/ There is no lover like knowledge/ Rise above doubt/ Tomorrow will have no poor men like you/ Only rich men, and no one to collect debts." Another song, Rooster, is about waking people up after a long and dark night. University students forced to speak Mandarin and imams in patriotic education classes can read what they like into it.

Abdurihim's hands are full these days. His troupe had a performance last year in Kashgar and he followed his 45-min. act with an encore of equal length. He is currently recording a new batch of songs. But he's still forced to compromise, and not just on his lyrics. On a blackboard outside his office the party committee of his new troupe has written its latest slogan in pink, yellow and blue chalk: RESOLUTELY RE-EDUCATE IN THE BATTLE AGAINST SPLITTISM. Two years ago, after he had been photographed for the Legacy cover, the leaders of his new work unit made him shave his beard. It was too religious-looking, they said. When you're a voice of the Uighurs, you've got to stay very low-key.

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08-01-12, 19:02
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