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Turdi Ghoja
07-01-12, 23:05
Hazirqi zaman Uyghur muzikantliri ichide Abdurehim Heyt gherp elliride eng chong qiziqish qozghighan birsi. U New York Zaman Geziti we Waqit Jornilida tonushturilipla qalmastin yeqinda uning muzikisi Amerikiliq bir muzika oqughuchisining magistirliq tesisining tetqiqat timisi bolighan. Bu heqte pat-arida tepsili tohtilimen. Tuwende New York Zaman gezitige 13 yil ilgiri besilghan bir maqalini terjimisi bilen diqitinglerge sundum. Bu meydangha kiridighan kop sandiki ademler u chaghda tehi gherp ellirige kelmigen bolghachqa ular buni tunji korishi bolishi mumkin.

Turdi
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Zhongguning Yiraq Bir Bulingidiki Bir Helq Cholpini
New York Zaman Geziti
NEIL STRAUSS
1999-yil, 7-Fevral.
Qeshqer ikki waqit rayunni bilen chigilip qalghan bir sheher. Zhongguning gherbi-shimalida Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan we Qirgizstanlarning chigrisidin 300 kilometir kilidighan yerge jaylashqan bu meshhur Yipek Yoli bostanlighi ikki waqit rayuni yiraqliqidiki payteht Beijingning wahtini ishlitidighan Hanzular teripidin bashqurilidu, emma Qeshqer nopusining 80% din kopini igelleydighan yerlik millet bolghan Turki tilida sozleydighan Uyghurlar Beijing wahtidin ikki saet ilgiri bolghan yerlik waqit boyiche yashaydu. Bu perk Qeshqerni aylinishta ademni elishturup qoyidiken. Mining hazirqi zaman Uyghurlar arisidiki eng mohim kompozatur we muzikantlarning biri bolghan Abdurehim Heytni tepishimnimu bekla qiyingha chushurdi.

Huddi Qeshqerge ohshash Heyt ependiningmu ikki hil hayati barken. Bir tereptin, u Uyghurlarning enenivi shi’ir we muziklirini orunlash bilen meshhur. Uning chongqur, yangraq dimiq awazda ikki tariliq chalghu eswabi duttar bilen eyitqan nahshilliri hokimet teripdin ishlengen we tarqitilghan kasetlerde setilidu. Yene bir tereptin, uning shehsi ishlep chiqarghan kasetler bar. Bu kasetlarge Heyt Ependining orijinal ijadiyetliridin “Jahil Mihman” digendek nahshilar elinghan. Bu nahshida bir qeri ademning ketmey turiwalghan bir mihmangha qilghan hitabi arqiliq Zhonguning 1884-Yili uzining bir olkisi qiliwalghan Xinjiang rayunidiki mewjutlighigha yapma ohshitish qilinghan. Uyghur eneniside muzika adette soygu, edep-ehlaq we bolmighur qilmishlarni tenqitleshler toghruluq bolidu. Emma yangraq awazi uchun “Xinjiangning Horizi” dep nam alghan Heyt Ependi Uyghurlar arisida Zhonggu hokimiranlighi astidiki hayatni teswirleydighan tunji muzikant. Shunga u bu shehsi kasetlerni yasap berguchilerge ularning buni ishlesh uchun tewekkul qilghinining heqqi uchun artuq heq tulishi kirek bolidu. U bu casetlerni bikarliq tarqitidu.

Yurigide isyan we shiir oti bar bu helq muzikisining piri yerlikler arisidiki Bob Dilan bolup qalghan bolup nurghun muzikantlar uning izidin egeshken. Az digende ulardin biri siyasi nahshilarni orunlighini uchun qolgha elinghan. Uning “Jahil Mihman” we Uyghur mediniyitini medileydighan “Yipek” qatarliq nahshilliri tehiche ishek harwisini asasi qatansh qurali qilidighan Keshqerde antemge (marsh) aylinip kishilerning iptihar menbiyige aylanghan.

Heyt Ependini izdeshni Qeshqerning bas-bas Yekshenbe baziridin bashlidim. U yerde uning uch kasetlik enenivi usluptiki muzika-nahsha toplimi “Pushayman” kasetchiler dukinida alhide orundin yer alghan idi. U yerde Abdugheni isimlik bir yash u kompozaturni tepip bereleydighanlighini buldurdi. Abdugheni Uyghurlarning yerlik doppisidin waz kechip Amerikiche gartop shepkisini aldini keydige qilip kiyiwalghan idi. “Bizde mundaq bir gep bar,” didi u bir Uyghur ayalni haqaret qilghan bir Henzu bilen urushup yarilinip bandaj tengiwalghan kozini uwlap turup, “Uyghur balisi mangalaydighan bolghan haman usul oyniyalaydu, gep qilalaydighan bolghandila nahsha oquyalaydu.”

Yandurqi tohtalghumiz bir topa yolgha jaylashqan kichik dukan boldi. Bu dukan besh ewlat chalghu eswaplirini yasap setiwatqan Emin ayilisige tewe iken. Bu dukan Qeshqerning qoshkimlik haraktirini eske salatti. Dukan aldigha esilghan bir altun hellik tahtida dukan igisi Muhammad Eminning munewer itpaq ezasi ikenligi yezilghan. Emma dukan ichige kirsingiz bugunki Qeshqerning simasi ghayip bolatti. Tamlargha sipta neqishlengen Hushtar esilghan idi. Iskirapqa ohshap qalidighan bu chalghu Uyghur muzikisidin yoqap ketken bolup 50 yillar ilgiri Taklamakan Qumliqida qezish elip beriliwatqanda tepilghandin biri qayta sepke qetilghan. Topa-chang basqan bu dukanda hem rawap we daplarmu heli kop idi. Emin Ependi her bir sazdin birni qoligha elip chelip berdi we Uyghur eghiz muzika enenisini chushendurup berdi. Uyghur muzikisida nota ishletmeydiken. Belki bu bir yahshi ish bolsa kirek, chunki Mediyiyet Inqilawida muzik toghruluq yezilghan nersilerning hemmisi chalghu sazliri bilen bille yighiwelinip koydurilgen iken. “On yil aldida hazirqi zaman muzikilliri bek moda bolghan, emma hazir helq nahshilliri Uyghur jemiyetide eng mohim orunda turidu. Miningche bu Mediniyet Inqilawida heh uzining halighinini anglaydighan erkinligi bolmighanlighi, nurghun dangliq muzikantlar olturwetilgenligidin bolghan,” didi Emin Ependi.

Emin Ependi Heyt Ependining tiliponi yoqlighini eytip Ghenigha Heyt Ependining achisining (yaki singlisining) tilipun nomirini berdi. Heyit Ependining achisining oyige barsaq uning jiyeni Murat bizni kompozator ata-anisi bilen bille turidighan kichik oyge bashlap baridighan boldi. Murat gherpche eghir-metal muzika grupi Kreatorning logosi besilghan maykini kiyiwalghan idi.
Heyt Ependi jiinz (niuzaiku) we dezmallanghan tugme yaqiliq aq koynek kiyiwalghan idi. U pakiz hem retlik yasalghan burut qoyiwalghanti. Neqish sapliqUyghur pichighidin biri tire ghilap bilen kemirige esilghan idi. U kotirilgen julaliq qizghuch gilem usitide olturatti. Oyde gilemdin bashqa nerse yoqtek quruq korinetti. Heyt Ependi ayilisidikilerni yapilaq nan, qoghun, chay we qol yuyidighan samawer echchiqturdi. Andin Ghenigha yolinip turup quliqigha pichirlidi. Gheni hijil bolghan halda Heyt Ependining burun hechqandaq Amerikiliq bilen sozliship baqmighanlighini dewatqanlighini didi.

Yandurqi bir saette Heyt Ependi Ghenining terjimanlighida muzik tarihi, her yili nechche on qetim qoyidighan tot saetke sozilidighan marasun oyanliri we Uyghurlar ichide tunji bolup yeziwatqan Uyghur klassik muzikisi heqqidiki kitawi toghrisida sozlep berdi. “Muzika Uyghur mediyitining eng muhim buleklirining biri,” did u, “Kishiler Amerikining T-Koyneklirini kiyishi mumkin, emma ularning yurigi ohshash turidu. Muzik yurekning simoli bolghachqa asta ozgeridu.”
Emma Heyt Ependi muzikini ozgertiwatqan idi. Uyghurche muzik Iran, Arap we Turkche muziklarning tesirige uchrighan bolup hosh-huy we murekkep kilidiken, Arapchide maqam dep atilidighan bir muzika tarazisida (scale) bir dem koturilip bir dem pesiyip turidiken. Uyghur musizikisi Xinjiangning “nahsha-usul makani” dep nam elishigha sewep bolghan. Uyghur muzikisi adettiki qarashlarda 9-esirde bu rayungha elip kirilgen bolup Tang Sulalisining Hanlirining yahshi korishige irishkenligi uchun Zhungguning muzikisigha tesir korsetken.

Heyt Ependining eng yeqinqi neshirdin chiqqan “Miras” namliq esiri tunji qetim CD da chiqqan esiri hisaplinip uningdiki eng meshhur nahshisining ismi “Horaz” iken. Uningda bir horazning helqni qarangghudin oyghitip tangni qarshi elishqa chilawatqanlighi mezmun qilinghan. “Hokimet nahshilarning siyasilighi heqqide hazirche bir nerse dep baqmidi, shunga balagha qalamdimen qalmamdimen uqmaymen.”

U kuni kechte Heyt Ependi bizni yerlik bir chayhanigha elip bardi. U bizni arqidiki oyge bashlap kirip ashhanining bir kishlik dianziqin muzika etritining cheliwatqan muzikisini anglimasliq uchun ishikni mekkem yapti. Kechlik tamaqtin kiyin u ashhanidin bir duttar tapti. U igilip ketken, tengshiki buzulghan bir duttar idi. Emma uning barmaqliri Gittarningkidin ikki hesse uzun kilidighan duttar boynida aldi-keyni sirilip tarillirini eghir-metal suriti bilen chekkende sazning nohsanliri ghayip boldi. Horazning awazidek jarangliq muhabbet nahshilliri tamlardin yanatti. Tarlar uning piship ketken qattiq barmaqliri astida jarangliq taraslayti, retimi tiz muzika ishiktin sirtqa uchmaqta idi. Heyt Ependi nechche minut chaldimu yaki nechche saetmu bulmek tes idi. Biranda, Qeshqer birge aylanghan, waqitnimu birla saetke, Duttargha, toghrilighan idi.
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MUSIC; In a Far-Flung Corner of China, a Folk Star
By NEIL STRAUSS
Published: February 07, 1999
New York Times
KASHGAR is a town tangled up in two time zones. Nestled in the northwest of China, less than 200 miles from the borders of Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan, the legendary Silk Road oasis is run by the Han Chinese, who follow the clock of their capital, two time zones away in Beijing. Meanwhile, the Uighurs, Turkic-speaking Muslims who make up more than 80 percent of Kashgar's population, live according to the local clock, two hours earlier than Beijing's. This disparity makes Kashgar a confusing town to navigate -- and it made the task of tracking down Abdurahim Heet, one of the most important contemporary Uighur composers and musicians, extremely difficult.
Like Kashgar, Mr. Heet leads a double life. On one hand, he is famous in the region for his performances of traditional Uighur (pronounced WE-goor) poetry and music. These are sung in a deep, resonant, nasal voice and accompanied by the dutar, a two-stringed lute. The music is available as cassettes manufactured and distributed by the Chinese Government.
On the other hand, there are the privately manufactured cassettes. These contain Mr. Heet's original compositions, pieces like ''Stubborn Guest,'' an old man's plea to a lodger who has overstayed his welcome -- and a thinly disguised analogy for China's presence in the surrounding Xinjiang region, which was made a province of China in 1884. Traditionally, Uighur music deals with love, morality and criticisms of misconduct. But Mr. Heet -- known as the ''Rooster of Xinjiang'' because of his voice -- is the first Uighur musician to write about life under Chinese rule. As a result, he has to pay extra money to the private manufacturers of his cassettes to compensate them for the risk they are taking. He distributes these tapes for free.
A master of folk tradition with a fire for protest and poetry, he has become a local Bob Dylan, spurring many musicians to follow in his footsteps (and in at least one case to get arrested for a politically charged performance). Songs like ''Stubborn Guest'' and ''Silk,'' a paean to Uighur culture, have become anthems and sources of pride in Kashgar, where donkey carts are still the main mode of transportation.
The search for Mr. Heet began in Kashgar's busy Sunday market, where the stalls selling local cassettes had his three-tape series of traditional tunes, ''Regret,'' on prominent display. There Abdul Ghenee, a young Uighur who had discarded the traditional skullcap in favor of a baseball cap worn backwards, promised he could help track the composer down.
''We have a saying,'' he said, rubbing his bandaged eye, a result of a fight with a Chinese man who had insulted a Uighur woman. ''When a Uighur child can walk, he can dance. When a Uighur child can speak, he or she can sing.''
The next stop was an open storefront on a dirt road. The shop belonged to the Emin family, which has been making and selling instruments there for five generations. The store was a reminder of Kashgar's duality. On the outside was a gold-covered plaque designating the shop's proprietor, Muhammat Emin, as a model member of the local Communist league. But inside, traces of modern Kashgar disappeared. The walls were lined with elaborately decorated hushtars, a violin-like instrument that had disappeared from Uighur music until it was discovered during an excavation in the nearby Taklaman desert some 50 years ago. The snakeskin heads of rewap lutes and dop drums were also scattered around the dusty room. Mr. Emin picked and pounded melodies and rhythms on each, explaining the Uighur oral tradition. There is no notation in Uighur music, which is perhaps a good thing, since what little was written about the music was burned along with as many instruments as could be gathered during the Cultural Revolution.
''Ten years ago, modern music was very popular,'' Mr. Emin said. ''But these days folk music has the most important place in Uighur society. I think it's because during the Cultural Revolution people didn't have the freedom to choose what they listened to, and many famous musicians were killed.''
Mr. Emin gave Mr. Ghenee the phone number of Mr. Heet's sister, a music teacher, explaining that Mr. Heet does not have a phone. At Mr. Heet's sister's house, her nephew, Marat, wearing a T-shirt emblazoned with the logo of the Western heavy-metal band Kreator, offered to lead us to the small house where the composer lives with his parents.
Mr. Heet was dressed in jeans, a neatly pressed white button-down shirt and a dapper mustache. A finely handled Uighur dagger hung from a leather sheath hooked to one of his belt loops. He sat on an elevated, bright red carpet in an otherwise empty room and had his family bring out flat bread, melon, tea and a bowl for hand-washing. He then leaned over and whispered something to Mr. Ghenee who explained, embarrassed, that Mr. Heet had never spent time with an American before.
FOR the next hour, Mr. Heet (with Mr. Ghenee serving as translator) explained the history of the music, the dozens of marathon four-hour concerts he performs annually and the book he was completing on classical Uighur music, the first of its kind. ''Music is one of the most important parts of Uighur culture,'' he said. ''People here can wear American T-shirts, but their hearts stay the same. The music, because it's such a symbol of the heart, changes slowly.''
Nonetheless, Mr. Heet has been changing the music. Influenced by Persian, Arabic and Turkish music, Uighur songs are as jubilant as they are complex, soaring and dipping along the Arabic scale known as the maqam and helping to give the Xinjiang region the nickname ''the land of song and dance.'' Generally thought to have been brought to the area in the ninth century, Uighur music wound up influencing Chinese court music when it became a favorite among Tang emperors.
One of the highlights of Mr. Heet's latest recording and first CD, ''Inheritance,'' is a song called ''Rooster,'' a story about a rooster awaking his people from darkness to welcome a new dawn.
''The Government hasn't said anything to me about the political songs yet,'' he said, ''so I don't know if I have a problem.''
That night, Mr. Heet brought us to a local teahouse, where he sat in the back room, door shut to prevent the sound of the restaurant's one-man synthesizer band from leaking in. After dinner, Mr. Heet found a dutar in the restaurant. It was warped and out of tune. But when his fingers started sliding and twiddling with heavy-metal speed up and down the long neck -- nearly twice the size of a guitar's -- the instrument's defects seemed to disappear. Wailed rooster-voiced lyrics of love reverberated off the walls, the strings crackled brightly beneath his calloused fingers, uptempo melodies flowed out of the door. Mr. Heet went on for minutes, or hours; it was hard to tell. For a moment, Kashgar was one, keeping time to a single clock, the dutar.

Unregistered
08-01-12, 08:12
Amerkigha kelip yirim yillar mabayni bolghiydi idi, bir kuni graduate coordinator bir gizitni kurup olturuptiken, kara NY times da silerdin bir muzikantni tonushturuptu dep kursetti. Karisam Abduryim heyt ependimning doppa we azrak kara buruti bilen elinghan suritimu bar iken. Gizitni manga bergen, likin saklimaptimen.

Unregistered
09-01-12, 23:53
Bu maqalini Abdurehim Heyt ependi korishke nisip bolghandimu? Korgen bolsa terjimisini jaylap qilip bireleydighan adem tapalighandimu? Bu adem bashqa chong milletlerdin bolghan bolsa dunyagha dangliq shehs bolup qalidighan talant igisi. Ademning boyi millitige chushluq bolidighan gepken, amal yoq. Emma sirtqi dunyaning mushunchilik tonighinimu yoqtin kop yahshi. Bu maqalini oqughan bolsa elwette memnun bolidu.