View Full Version : Annotated Bibliography of the History and Culture of Eastern Turkistan

Nathan Light
09-03-06, 14:54
Source: http://www.silkroadfoundation.org/newsletter/vol3num1/6_turkistan.php

Annotated Bibliography of the History and Culture of Eastern Turkistan, Jungharia/Zungaria/Dzungaria, Chinese Central Asia, and Sinkiang/Xinjiang (for the 16th-20th centuries CE, excluding most travel narratives)

Nathan Light
Miami University. Oxford, Ohio


The study of Eastern Turkistan or Xinjiang has long been hampered by geographic, cultural and linguistic complexity and difficult access to publications, but over the past 500 years, an enormous range of documentary materials have accumulated. Many Europeans have explored and studied the region since 1850 but their publications are often appear only in major research libraries and special collections, and even the travel accounts rarely reach a wider audience. Eastern Turkistan’s scholarly and strategic importance has resulted in extensive publications in European and East Asian languages, particularly Russian, German, French, English, Chinese and Japanese. In addition, authors from the region and from other parts of the Islamic world have written literary, historiographic and religious works in Arabic, Persian and Turki, while Chinese travelers and colonial officials have also left extensive descriptions, particularly since the Manchu-Qing conquest in 1758 CE.

As a part of the “Silk Road,” this region has been the conduit for people, culture and commerce since before recorded history. Much of the region’s fame has arisen from the extensive archeological and documentary finds in the arid southern and eastern Xinjiang regions as well as nearby Dunhuang in Gansu, but Xinjiang’s populated oases and steppe continue to sustain its role as a region through which travelers and traders link East, Central and South Asian spiritual, literary and material cultures. Before the name Xinjiang was applied in 1884, the Chinese described it as Xiyu (“Western Regions”) or Huijiang (“Muslim territories”) while Central Asians called it Kashgaria, Altishahr or Yettishahr (6 or 7 cities) or Eastern Turkistan. All of these names have acquired political meanings in the present, with the Chinese government strongly attacking the term Eastern Turkistan as a sign of separatist and even terrorist leanings. The widespread Chinese concern about this term can be seen from a search at Google.com: using Chinese characters for Dongtu (“Eastern Turkistan”) gives over one million hits, more than for either of the Chinese terms used for the Silk Road (Sizhouzhilu or Silu) and not far behind the 1.7 million hits for the name Xinjiang itself.

My goal in this bibliography is to introduce the study of the region through a classified list of the basic materials for study of culture and history over the past 500 years. The “Silk Road” is often described as in decline during this period, but in fact more recent Islamic and Mongol history is every bit as culturally rich and diverse as the preceding period, although the sources have not been as widely accessible to Western scholars. In compiling the present bibliography I found works remaining difficult to access: items such as publications by Pantusov from 1880-1910 are only slightly more available in research library collections than more recent publications from Xinjiang. Useful material exists in dissertations, obscure serial publications or unpublished conference papers. Not very different from the latter are the many rare manuscripts held in collections around the world, which fortunately are now slowly being edited and published, although with less fanfare than the Dunhuang and Tarim region texts from earlier periods. As these become more accessible these materials will considerably deepen our understanding of the history and culture of Eastern Turkistan: similar results can be seen arising from recent use of Manchu language sources for the study of Qing China and Turkic and Persian sources for Central Asia. This bibliography should improve access and help guide future library cataloging of items in Central Asian languages.

Outline of Contents
I) Online Databases and Information Sources (all periods)
II) Selected Historical Back-ground to 1500 CE and Regional Reference Works
III) Collected Works
IV) Serial publications
V) Bibliographies and Manu-script Descriptions
VI) Historical and Hagio-graphical Primary Sources
VII) Studies of History
VIII) World History, International Relations and Manchu-Junghar Interactions
IX) Western Explorers, Missionaries, and Consuls (excluding travel accounts not related to formal expeditions)
X) Basic Sources for Linguistics and Language Study
XI) Studies of Literature and Literary History
XII) Performing Arts, Ethno-musicology, Folklore, Folk Art, Architecture and Material Culture
XIII) Anthropology, Cultural Analysis, Ethnography, Ethnicity, Ethnogenesis
XIV) Religion: Islam, Khwâja Rule, Sufism, Shamanism
XV) Ecology, Economics, Geography, Pastoralism
XVI) Analyses of Social Policies, Politics, Strategic Issues and Current Events

I) Online Databases and Information Sources (all periods)

The following are the most comprehensive online sources for material on Xinjiang. My own bibliography is simply a list of the contents of the first 12 years of two important scholarly series in Xinjiang. The ODIAS and RIFIAS are likewise bibliographic sources. The Tôyô Bunko archive, IDP, ORIAS and Silk Road Seattle sites provide a wide ranger of important and hard-to-find materials directly online.

Bibliography of Uyghur language articles on history and literature by Nathan Light (lists contents of the series Shinjang Tarikh Materiyalliri (volumes 1-33, 1980-1992) and the journal Bulaq; Uyghur kilassik ädibiyati mäjmua’äsi (issues 1-41, 1980-1992). Bulaq consists of editions and analyses of works of Eastern Turki (Uyghur) literature and translations of works from Persian and Turkic languages. Most of these entries have also been entered into the ODIAS database.) <http://homepages.utoledo.edu/nlight/uygarticles.htm>.

Digital Archive of Tôyô Bunko Rare Books (35 books, 9062 pages from art historical and research publications from the past 150 years; high quality photos) <http://dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/>.

IDP: International Dunhuang Project Database (Search from collections of texts and artifacts from sites throughout Chinese Central Asia by Manuscript, Photograph, Artifact, Catalogue, Painting, and geo-graphically by Map.) <http://idp.bl.uk/ManuscriptSearch>.

ODIAS (Online Databases for Inner Asia Studies, with citations for articles, books and manuscripts) <http://www.gicas.jp/orias/odias.htm>.

ORIAS Digitized books (Kashgar imprints from the Swedish Mission Press and Publications of China Inland Mission) <http://www. gicas.jp/orias/digibooks.htm>.

RIFIAS: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies Online Library Catalog (A searchable library catalog of roughly 10,000 items available in the RIFIAS collection at Indiana University, Bloomington, along with a catalog of 400 RIFIAS pub-lications.)<http://www.indiana.edu/~rifias/Library _Catalog.htm>.

Silk Road Seattle (research resources maintained under direction of Daniel C. Waugh) <http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/>.

The Silk Road and Central Asia On the World Wide Web (links maintained by Daniel C. Waugh) <http://depts.washington.edu/reecas/outreach/silklink.htm>.

II) Selected Historical Back-ground and Reference for Central Eurasia and Prior to 1500 CE

These are the most important works for an overview under-standing the region and for guiding further research.
Bartold, V. V. Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion. 3rd ed. H.A.R. Gibb and Tatiana Minorsky, trans. C.E. Bosworth, ed. London, Luzac & co., 1968. [Online at the ACLS history e-book project: <http://name.umdl. umich.edu/HEB00858.>]

Beckwith, Christopher. The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A history of the struggle for great power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Bregel, Yuri. An Historical Atlas of Central Asia. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2003.

Chavannes, Édouard. Documents sur Les Tou-Kiue (Turcs) occidentaux, recueillis et commentés, suivi de notes additionnelles. Paris: Librarie d’Amerique et d’Orient, 1903.

Clark, Larry. “Introduction to the Uyghur Civil Documents of East Turkestan (13th-14th Centuries).” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University, 1975.

Di Cosmo, Nicola, ed. Warfare in Inner Asian History: 500-1800. Leiden: Brill, 2002.

—. Ancient China and its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Eberhard, Wolfram. China und seine westlichen Nachbarn: Beitrag zur mittelalterlichen und neueren Geschichte Zentralasiens. Darm-stadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesell-schaft, 1978.

Elverskog, Johan. Uygur Buddhist literature. Turnhout: Brepols, 1997.

Golden, Peter. An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasowitz, 1992.

Güzel, Hasan Celal, et al, eds. The Turks. 6 vols. Ankara: Yeni Türkiye, 2002. [Chronological collection of articles of varying scholarly depth and accuracy. First 3 volumes include articles on Central Asian Turkic peoples.]

Hamilton, James Russell. Les Ouïghours à l’époque des Cinq Dynasties d’après les documents chinois. Paris, 1955.

History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Paris: Unesco, 1992-. 5 vols. [An extensive publishing project including over 100 articles on culture, history, religions, society and technology of the region. Some of this material is online at <http://www.unesco.org/culture/asia/html_eng/ouvrages.htm>.]

Han, Xiang. Qiuci shi ku. Ürümchi: Xinjiang Daxue chubanshe, 1990. [Extensive discussion of the Qiuci caves near Kucha, with many color plates.]

Hung, Chin-Fu. “China and The Nomads: Misconceptions in Western Historiography on Inner Asia.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 41/2 (1981): 597-628. [Critical review of Luc Kwanten’s history Imperial Nomads.]

Ji Dachun, ed. Xinjiang lishi cidian. Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chuban-she, 1993. [Dictionary of Xinjiang history.]

Kamberi, Dolkun. “A survey of Uyghur documents from Turpan and their importance for Asian and central Eurasian history.” Central Asian Survey, 18/3 (1999): 281-301.

Komaroff, Linda and Stefano Carboni. The legacy of Genghis Khan: courtly art and culture in western Asia, 1256-1353. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002. [Online selections in nicely-designed exhibit at: <http://www.lacma.org/khan/index_flash.htm>.]

Laut, Jens Peter. Der frühe türkische Buddhismus und seine literarischen Denkmäler. (Veröffentlichungen der Societas Uralo-Altaica, vol. 21). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986.

Lieu, Samuel N. C. Manichaeism in Central Asia and China. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

Lin Enxian. Tujue yanjiu. [Turk studies.] Taibei: Taiwan shangwu yingshuguan, 77 [1988].

Liu, Mau-Ts’ai. Die chinesischen Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Ost-Türken (T’u-Küe). 2 vols. Asiatische Forschungen, 10. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1958.

—. Kutscha und seine Beziehungen zu China von 2. Jh. v. bis zum 6. Jh. n. Chr., 2 vols. Asiatische For-schungen, 27. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1969.
Liu Weixin, ed. Xibei minzu cidian. Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chuban-she, 1998. [Dictionary of N.W. nationalities.]
Mackerras, Colin P. The Uighur Empire according to the T’ang Dynastic Histories: A Study in Sino-Uighur Relations 744-840. Can-berra: Australian National University Press, 1972. [Online publication of one of the two primary source texts in this book, at: <http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/tangshu/tangshu.html>.]
Mair, Victor, ed. The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Man, 1998.
Mallory, J. P. and Victor H. Mair. The Tarim Mummies, Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.

Mei Jianjun. Copper and Bronze Metallurgy in Late Prehistoric Xinjiang: Its Cultural Context and Relationship with Neighboring Regions. BAR International Series 865. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2000.

Rhie, Marylin M. Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia. 2 vols. in 3. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Rossabi, Morris, ed. China among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Roxburgh, David J. Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years, 600-1600. London: Royal Academy Books, 2005.

Thomas, Frederick William. Tibetan literary texts and documents concerning Chinese Turkestan. 4 vols. London: The Royal Asiatic Society, 1935-1965

Whitfield, Susan and Ursula Sims-Williams, eds. The Silk Road: trade, travel, war and faith. London: British Library, 2004.

Yarshater, Ehsan, ed. Encyclopædia Iranica. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985-. [Also online at: <http://www.iranica.com/articlenavigation/index.html>.]

Zieme, Peter. Die Stabreimtexte der Uiguren von Turfan und Dunhuang. Studien zur alttürkischen Dichtung. Bibliotheca Orientalis Hungarica, 33. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1991.

III) Collected Works

The collections below represent significant research compilations. A number of volumes of articles in Russian and many in Chinese are also valuable but less accessible. The Starr and CEMOTI volumes are both primarily oriented towards analysis of international relations, develop-ment, politics and statistics rather than ethnographic study. The Benson and Svanberg volume is somewhat more concerned with cultural analysis.

Benson, Linda, and Ingvar Svanberg, eds. The Kazaks of China: essays on an ethnic minority. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1988. Contents:
L. Benson and I. Svanberg. “The Kazakhs in Xinjiang.”
Ingvar Svanberg. “The Nomadism of Orta Žüz Kazaks in Xinjiang, 1911-1949.”
L. Benson. “Osman Batur: The Kazak’s Golden Legend.”
Mark Kirchner. “The Language of the Kazaks from Xinjiang: A Text Sample.”
Thomas Hoppe. “Kazak Pastoralism in the Bogda Range.”

Cahiers d’études sur la Méditerranée orientale et le monde turco-iranien (CEMOTI) 25: Les Ouïgours au vingtième siècle (1998).
Françoise Aubin. “L’arrière-plan historique du nationalisme ouïgour. Le Turkestan oriental des origines au XXème siècle.”
Dru C. Gladney. “Internal Colonialism and the Uyghur Nationality: Chinese Nationalism and Its Subaltern Subjects.”
Michel Jan. “L’intégration du Xinjiang dans l’ensemble chinois: vulnérabilité et sécurité.”
Artoush Kumul. “Témoignage - Le “séparatisme” ouïgour au XXème siècle: histoire et actualité.”
Ildiko Beller-Hann. “Work and Gender among Uighur Villagers in Southern Xinjiang.”
Gülzade Tanridagli. “Le roman historique, véhicule du nationalisme ouïgour.”
Cheripjan Nadirov. “La structure économique de la région autonome du Xinjiang ouïgour et sa place dans le système des relations sino-kazakhes.”
Hamide Khamraev. “La géopolitique du pétrole.”
Hegel Ishakov et Khadia Akhmedova. “Les migrations des Ouïgours vers l’Asie centrale ex-soviétique.”
Frédérique-Jeanne Besson. “Les Ouïgours hors du Turkestan oriental: de l’exil à la formation d’une diaspora.”

Starr, S. Frederick, ed. Xinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2004.
James A. Millward, Peter C. Perdue. “Political and Cultural History of the Xinjiang Region through the Late Nineteenth Century.”
James A. Millward, Nabijan Tursun. “Political History and Strategies of Control, 1884-1978.”
Dru C. Gladney. “The Chinese Program of Development and Control, 1978-2001.”
Yitzhak Shichor. “The Great Wall of Steel: Military and Strategy in Xinjiang.”
Calla Wiemer. “The Economy of Xinjiang.”
Linda Benson. “Education and Social Mobility among Minority Populations in Xinjiang.”
Sean R. Roberts. “A ‘Land of Borderlands’: Implications of Xinjiang’s Trans-border Inter-actions.”
Stanley W. Toops. “The Demography of Xinjiang” and “The Ecology of Xinjiang: A Focus on Water.”
Jay Dautcher. “Public Health and Social Pathologies in Xinjiang.”
Justin Rudelson, William Jankowiak. “Acculturation and Resistance: Xinjiang Identities in Flux.”
Graham E. Fuller, Jonathan N. Lipman. “Islam in Xinjiang.”
Gardner Bovingdon, Nabijan Tursun. “Contested Histories.”
Dru C. Gladney. “Responses to Chinese Rule: Patterns of Cooperation and Opposition.”
16-page “Bibliographic Guide to Xinjiang.”

IV) Serial publications

The following are the more important serials and periodicals devoted to the history and culture of Xinjiang published in China and suggest the immense range of new publishing that began in the 1980s. I have not listed most popularly-oriented publications, nor those that primarily express Chinese government or local and émigré dissident political perspectives.

Bulaq; Uyghur kilassik ädibiyati mäjmu’äsi. [Bulaq: Journal of Uyghur classical literature.] Ürümchi, 1980-. [Has published around 20,000 pages of articles and literary editions since inception.]
Miras; päsillik zhornal. [Heritage; quarterly journal. Published by the Junggo khälq eghiz ädibiyat-sän’ät tätqiqat jämiyiti Shinjang Uyghur aptonom rayonluq shöbisi; Uyghur tätqiqat ishkhanisi.] Ürümchi, 1983-. [Popularly-oriented journal about Uyghur literature, folklore, and folk art.]
Shinjang Dashösi ilmiy zhurnili. Pälsäpä-ijtima’i pän qismi. [Xinjiang University Scientific Journal. Philosophy and Social Science Section.] Ürümchi, 1980-.
Shinjang ijtima’i panlar tatqiqati. Xinjiang shehui kexueyuan xuebao. [Journal of the Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences.] Ürümchi, 1981-.
Shinjang mädäniyät; qosh ayliq universal ädäbiy zhurnal. [Xinjiang civilization; bi-monthly journal of universal literature. Popular journal with articles and literature by Uyghurs, apparently began publishing in Ürümchi in 1951.]
Shinjang Qirghiz adabiyati = Xinjiang Kirghiz literature. Ürümchi, 1981-.
Shinjang tarikh materiyalliri. [Xinjiang historical materials.] 1980-. [Irregular volumes of articles most of which also appear in Chinese versions in the series Xinjiang wenshi ziliao xuanji.]
Shinjang täzkirisi [Xinjiang annals]. 1983-. [Local histories are now also published in the multi-volume Shinjang omumii täzkirisi, beginning in 1996.]
Shinjang Tibbii Instituti ilmii zhurnili = Xinjiang yixueyuan xuebao = Acta Academiae Medicinae Xinjiang. Ürümchi, 1985-.
Tängritagh; qosh ayliq ädibiy zhurnal [Tangritagh; bi-monthly literary journal.] 1980s-. [Popular literary magazine published in Ürümchi.]
Tarim; ayliq ädäbiy zhurnal. [Tarim; monthly literary journal.] 1950-. [Contemporary literary composi-tions, translations and commentary.]
Uyghur khälq chöchäkliri. Ürümchi, 1979-. [At least 11 irregular volumes of folk tales.]
Uyghur khälq dastanliri. Ürümchi, 1981-. [At least 4 volumes of dastan prose and poetry narratives.]
Uyghur khälq nakhshiliri. Ürümchi, 1980-. At least 6 volumes of folk songs with musical transcriptions.]
Uyghur khälq qoshaqliri. Ürümchi, 1979-. [Folk quatrains with musical transcriptions.]
Xibei minzu yanjiu = Research in N.W. national minorities. [Academic journal published in Lanzhou.]
Xiyu yanjiu = The Western Regions Studies. Ürümchi, 1991-.
Zhongguo bianjiang shidi yanjiu; China’s borderland history and geography studies. Beijing, 1991-. [Another recently established journal.]

V) Bibliographies and Manuscript Descriptions

(to be continued)

Nathan Light
09-03-06, 15:00
V) Bibliographies and Manuscript Descriptions

The most important primary sources for study of the past 500 years are Persian, Turkic, Manchu and Chinese manuscript and archival documents. The extensive Chinese sources have appeared in a number of facsimile editions and I list only a few of the research guides to them here. The other sources are only beginning to be systematically studied and published and access remains a problem. Although most have some deficiencies, the sources below are the best descriptions of the available primary and secondary source materials.

Abdurahman, Amina and Jin Yu-Ping. “Une vue d’ensemble des manuscrits tchagatay du Xinjiang.” In: La Mémoire et ses supports en Asie Centrale. Les Cahiers d’Asie centrale N°8. Vincent Fourniau, ed. Aix-en-Provence: Institut Français d’Etude sur l’Asie Centrale, 2000, pp. 35-62.

Bregel, Yuri. Bibliography of Islamic Central Asia. 3 vols. Bloomington, Indiana: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, 1995. [Classified bibliography of 30,500 books and articles on the history and culture of Central Asia (including Chinese Central Asia) published from the 17th century through 1988. All languages except East Asian.]

Chen Yanqi and Sasha. Xiyu yanjiu shumu. Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1990. [Classified bibliography of 6734 Chinese, European, Russian and Japanese books on Central Asia and Xinjiang (known in Chinese as Xiyu or the Western Regions).]

Hamada Masami. “Research Trends in Xinjiang Studies.” In Research Trends in Modern Central Eurasian Studies (18th-20th Centuries ): A Selective and Critical Bibliography of Works Published between 1985 and 2000. Part 1. Stéphane A. Dudoignon and Komatsu Hisao, eds. Tokyo: The Toyo Bunko, 2003.

Hartmann, Martin. “Die osttürk-ischen Handschriften der Sammlung Hartmann.” Mitteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen, 7 (1904): 1-21.

Hofman, H. F. Turkish literature. A bio-bibliographical survey. Section III. Moslim Central Asian Turkish literature. 6 volumes bound as 2. Utrecht: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1969. [Erudite, chatty and often obscure annotations on the authors and works of Central Asian Turkic manuscript literature.]

Hoppe, Thomas. Xinjiang-Arbeitsbibliographie II: Autonomes Gebiet Xinjiang der Uiguren, China (Naturbedingungen, Geschichte, Ethnien, Landnutzung); Xinjiang provisional bibliography II: Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China (natural conditions, history, ethnic groups, land use). Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1987. [Roughly 2000 items primarily in English, German, Russian, Chinese and Uyghur.]
Kaidarov, A. Uigurskii iazyk i literatura. Annotirovannyi biblio-graficheskii ukazatel’. [Uyghur Language and Literature. Biblio-graphic Index.] Tom 1. Alma-Ata: AN Kazakhskoi SSR, 1962.
Lin Enxian. Jindai Zhongguo bianjiang yanjiu lunzhu mulu. Taibei: National Chengchi University, Institute of China Border Area Studies, 75 [1986].
Liu Ge and Huang Xianyang. Xiyu shidi lunwen cailiao suoyin. Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1988. [Classified bibliography of 8032 articles in Chinese about history, minorities, economy, culture, literature, language, geography and archeology of the “Western Regions.”]
Matsuura, S. “A bibliography of works on the Manchu and Sibo languages.” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Tôyô Bunko 38 (1980), p. 95-179. [Sibo or Xibe is the only form of Manchu that continues to be spoken and written in China.]
Muginov, Abdulladzhan Muginovich. Opisanie uigurskikh rukopisei Instituta Narodov Azii. [Description of Uyghur Manuscripts in the Institute of the Peoples of Asia.] Moscow: 1962. [Classifies a group of traditional manuscripts as “Uyghur” based on linguistic features, and time and place of composition, while ignoring other popular Turkic and Persian works found in Eastern Turkistan.]

Sawut, Torsunmuhämmät. Uyghur ädäbiyati tarikhi materiyallar katalogi. Ürümchi: Shinjang Dashö Därslik Bölümi, 1991. [A typescript volume listing 3541 books and articles about Uyghur literary history, organized by period and subject, and 665 manuscript titles held in eight collections in Ürümchi.]

Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayonluq Az Sanliq Millät Qädimki Äsärlirini Toplash, Rätläsh, Näshir Qilishni Pilanlash Rähbärlik Guruppa Ishkhanisi. Uyghur, Özbek, Tatar Qädimki äsärlär tizimliki. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. [A catalogue of approximately 1500 Turkic, Persian and Arabic manuscripts and lithographs held in the Xinjiang libraries. All from the Islamic period and in Arabic script.]
Stary, Giovanni. Manchu Studies. An International Bibliography. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1990.
Umemura Hiroshi. Japanese studies on Inner Asian history, 1973-1983. Tokyo: Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, 1987. [Bibliography in Japanese and English; introductory article in English.]

Yuan Tongli. Shinkyô kenkyû bunken mokuroku, 1886-1962: Nichibunbon = Classified bibliography of Japanese books and articles concerning Sinkiang, 1886-1962. Tokyo: Shoei-Insatsu Co., 1962.

Zhongguo weiwuer lishi wenhua yanjiuhui. Weiwuer lishi wenhua yanjiu wenxian tilu. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe, 2000. [Geng Shimin (<http://www.eurasianhistoryf.com/en/en_lunwen/20041210063002.htm>) cites this as a bibliography of 6980 entries on Uyghur history and culture but I find no other citation for this item.]

VI) Historical and Hagio-graphical Primary Sources

The following are the few editions and translations that have made local primary source documents and compositions available. These editions are of widely varying quality. I again avoid most of the Chinese local histories and gazeteers although these have been heavily used by Enoki, Fletcher, Hamada, Kim, Millward, and Saguchi. Kim’s endnotes are a comprehensive discussion on the different sources for 19th century history.
Alptekin, Isa Yusuf and M. Ali Tasçi. Esir Doghu Türkistan için: Isa Yusuf Alptekin’in mücadele hatiralari. Istanbul: Doghu Türkistan Nesriyat Merkezi, 1985. [Edited memoirs of an important East Turkistani leader.]
Baldick, Julian. Imaginary Muslims. London: Routledge, 1993. [A translation and epitome of a key hagiographic source for Eastern Turkistan. For details about the work and problems with this translation, see DeWeese, “The Tadhkira-i Bughra-khan…”.]

Chinggiznamä. Haji Nurhaji, ed. Kashgar: Qäshqär Uyghur Näsh-riyati, 1985. [Edited from a manuscript now held at the Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences, #00679. Matches the anonymous Târîkh-i Kâshgar (see below) but here ascribed to Molla Mersalih Kashqäri.]

Churâs, Shâh Mahmûd ibn Mirza Fazil. Khronika. Text, translation, notes, indices by O. F. Akimushkin. Moscow: Nauka, 1976. [Churâs wrote this Persian history, simply called Târîkh, in Kashgar in the seventeenth century, describing the cultural life and history of the court and its military encounters. It is composed as a continuation of the work of Mîrzâ Haydar.]

DeWeese, Devin. “The Tadhkira-i Bughra-khan and the ‘Uvaysi’ Sufis of Central Asia: Notes in Review of Imaginary Muslims.” Central Asiatic Journal 40:1 (1996): 87-127.

Di Cosmo, Nicola and Dalizhabu Bao. Manchu-Mongol relations on the eve of the Qing conquest: a documentary history. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

Gürsoy-Naskali, Emine, transl. and ed. Ashâbu’l-Kahf; A treatise in Eastern Turki. Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilainen seura, 1985. [Valuable study of a tomb and pilgrimage site near Turfan where the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus has become locally attached. Qurbân‘ali Khâlidî (see below) describes traveling to this site in his Târîkh-i jarîda-yi jadîda.]

Imbault-Huart, Camille. Recueil de documents sur l’Asie centrale. Paris: Leroux, 1881. [Translations from Chinese sources on 19th century rebellions in Eastern Turkistan.]

—. Le pays de Hami ou Khamil; description, histoire d’apres les auteurs chinois, Paris, E. Leroux, 1892.

Mîrzâ Haydar. A history of the Moghuls of central Asia; being the Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar, Dughlat. Edited, with commentary, notes, and map by N. Elias, translated by E. Denison Ross. London: Curzon, 1898. [Excerpts are available online at: <http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/rash1.html>.]
—. Mirza Haydar Dughlat’s Tarikh-i-Rashidi: a history of the khans of Moghulistan. English translation & annotation by W.M. Thackston Cambridge: Harvard University, Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, 1996.
—. Târîkh-i Rashîdî: târîkh-i khavânîn-i Mughûlistân; matn-i Fârsî. Cambridge: Dânishgâh-i Hârvârd, 1996. [Text of the original Persian version of the Târîkh-i Rashîdî.]

Molla Haji. Boghrakhanlar täzkirisi. Abdurehim Sabit, ed. Qäshqär: Qäshqär Uyghur Näshriyati, 1988. [Prepared from a 19th century manuscript in the complex body of hagiographical histories around Satuq Boghra Khan. See Baldick Imaginary Muslims and DeWeese, “The Tadhkira-i Bughra-khan…” for more information.]

Molla Ismätulla binni Molla Nemätulla Mojiz. Tävarikhi musiqiyyun. Änvär Baytur, Khämit Tomur, eds. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1982. [Facsimile, transcription, translation into modern Uyghur, and commentary of a 20 folio manuscript history of musicians, poets and singers, composed in 1854.]

Muhammad A’lam. Tadhkira-i Hajji Padishah Habib Allah va Rashidin Khan va Ya’qub Beg. Translation in “L’histoire de Hotan de Muhammad A’lam,” parts I-III. Hamada Masami, ed. Zinbun: memoirs of the Research Institute for Humanistic Studies, Kyoto University, 15(1979), 16(1980), 18 (1982).

Qurbân‘ali Khâlidî. An Islamic Biographical Dictionary of the Eastern Kazakh Steppe, 1770-1912. Text, translation and notes by Allen J. Frank and Mirkasyim A. Usmanov. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
—. Târîkh-i jarîda-yi jadîda. Qazan, 1889. [Author lived in the Tarbaghatay town known as Chöchäk, Chuguchak or Tacheng and has important connections to Eastern Turkistan and its Islamic history.]
Ross, E. Denison, ed. and tr. Three Turki manuscripts from Kashghar. Lahore: Mufid-i-am Press, 1908. [Contents: “Detailed contents of the three manuscripts.” Two extracts: Qasida on the revolt of Vali Khan Tora (1857 CE) with English translation; Ghazat-i-Muslimin on the rebellion of Ya‘qûb Beg.]

Sayrami, Mulla Musa. Tarikhiy äminiyä. Muhämmät Zunun, ed. Ürümchi: Shinjang Khälq Näshriyati, 1991. [Early twentieth-century historian whose manuscript work was first published as a lithograph by Pantusov in 1905 in Tashkent.]
—. Tarikhi Hämidi. Änvär Baytur, ed. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1986. [Edited from a 1911 autograph manuscript of this work which extends and elaborates Sayrami’s Tarikhiy äminiyä. Lund collection of Gunnar Jarring contains another copy.]

Târîkh-i Kâshgar: anonimnaia tiurkskaia khronika vladetelei Vostochnogo Turkestana po konets XVII veka. [Târîkh-i Kâshgar: An Anonymous Turkic Chronicle of the Rulers of East Turkistan through the End of the 17th Century.] Facsimile, translation and notes by O.F. Akimushkin. Sankt-Peterburg: Tsentr “Peterburgskoe vostoko-vedenie,” 2001.

VII) Studies of History

he more important historical studies, using Chinese, Turkic, and Persian sources as well as the archival documents of the British, Ottoman, Russian and Qing Empires. Some Soviet-era studies exhibit anti-Chinese biases, although B.A. Akhmedov and Iu. G. Baranova are free of these. The works of Benson, Forbes, Kim, Saguchi, and Wang are generally excellent, although Baranova already put forth Kim’s argument about Ya‘qûb Beg’s international balancing act. The works of Bughra, Kurban, Saray, Turfani, Aitchen Wu and Sheng Shi-tsai (with Whiting) exhibit the biases of political participants and their allies.

Akhmedov, B.A. ed. Iz istorii Srednei Azii i Vostochnogo Turkestana XV-XIX

vv. [From the History of Central Asia and Eastern Turkistan 15th-19th Centuries.] Tashkent: Fan, 1987.
Almas, Turghun. Uyghurlar. Ürümchi: Shinjang Yashlar-ösmürlär näsh-riyati, 1989. [Comprehensive but speculative history of the medieval Uyghurs was banned and destroyed because it suggests that Uyghurs have conquered China at various times during period from Huns to Mongol Empire.]
Baranova, Iu. G. “Svedeniia Uigurskoi khroniki Ta’rikh-i Amniya o vosstanovlenii Tsinskogo gospodstva v Sin’tsziane v 1875-1878 gg.” [Information in the Uyghur Chronicle Ta’rikh-i Amniya Concerning the Restoration of Qing Rule in Xinjiang in 1875-1878.] In Materialy po istorii i kul’ture Uigurskogo Naroda, G. S. Sadvakasov et al., eds. Alma-Ata: 1978, pp. 73-133.

Baytur, Änvär and Khäyrinisa Sidiq. Shinjangdiki millätlärning tarikhi. Beijing: Millätlär Näshriyati, 1991.

Benson, Linda. “Chinese Style, Turkic Content: A Discussion of Chinese Transliteration of Turkic Names.” Central Asian Survey, 7/1 (1988): 85-96.
—. The Ili Rebellion: The Moslem Challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang, 1944-1949. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1990.
—. “Uygur Politicians of the 1940s: Mehmet Emin Bugra, Isa Yusuf Alptekin And Mesut Sabri.” Central Asian Survey, 10/4 (1991): 87-113.
—. “Ahmetjan Kasimi: A Chinese Paradigm for a Uygur Cultural Hero.” Central Asian Survey, 11/3 (1992): 23-49.
—. “A Much-Married Woman: Marriage and Divorce in Xinjiang 1850-1950.” Muslim World, 83/3-4 (1993): 227-247.
—. “Contested History: Issues in the Historiography of Inner Asia’s Uighurs.” In Culture Contact, History and Ethnicity in Inner Asia. Michael Gervers and Wayne Schlepp, eds. Toronto: Joint Center for Asia Pacific Studies, 1996, pp. 115-131.
—, and Ingvar Svanberg. The Russians in Xinjiang: From Immigrants to National Minority. Central Asian Survey, 8/2 (1989): 97-129.
—, and Ingvar Svanberg. China’s Last Nomads: the History and Culture of China’s Kazaks. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.
—, Justin Rudelson and Stanley W. Toops. Xinjiang in the Twentieth Century: historical, anthropological, and geographical perspectives. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1994.
Borei, Dorothy V. “Ethnic conflict and Qing land policy in southern Xinjiang, 1760-1840.” In Dragons, tigers, and dogs: Qing crisis management and the boundaries of state power in late imperial China. Robert J. Antony and Jane K. Leonard, eds. Ithaca, N.Y.: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 2002.
Boulger, Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh. The life of Yakoob Beg; Athalik ghazi, and Badaulet; Ameer of Kashgar. London, W.H. Allen, 1878.

Bughra, Mehmet Emin. Sharqi Turkistan tarikhi. Srinagar: Bruka Parlis Basmakhanesi, 1946.

Chou, Nailene Josephine. “Frontier studies and changing frontier administration in late Ch’ing China: the case of Sinkiang, 1759-1911.” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington, 1976.

Duman. L. I. Agrarnaia politika tsinskogo (manchzhurskogo) pravitel’stva v Sin’tsziane v kontse XVIII veka. [The Agricultural Policy of the Qing (Manchu) Administration in Xinjiang at the End of the 18th Century.] Moscow: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1936.

Enoki Kazuo. “Researches in Chinese Turkestan during the Ch’ien-lung period, with special reference to the Hzi-yü-t’ung-wen-chih.” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Tôyô Bunko, 14 (1955): 1-46.

Everest-Phillips, Max. “The Suburban King Of Tartary.” Asian Affairs, 21/3 (1990): 324-335. [Claiming he represented the Muslim community of Chinese Turkistan as king, Dr. Bertram William Sheldrake traveled widely and gave lectures as a new monarch. Press attention faded quickly.]
—. “British Consuls in Kashgar.” Asian Affairs, 22/1 (1991): 20-34.
Forbes, Andrew. Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
—. “Role of the Hui Muslims (Tungans) in Republican Sinkiang.” In: Cultural Change and Continuity in Central Asia. London: Kegan Paul, 1991, pp. 361-372.
Galiev, V. V. Kazakhstan v sisteme rossiisko-kitaiskikh torgovo-ekonomicheskikh otnoshenii v Sin’tsziane (konets XIX-nachalo XX vv.). [Kazakhstan in the System of Russo-Chinese Commercial and Economic Relations in Xinjiang (End of the 19th-Beginning of the 20th Centuries).] Almaty: Institut istorii i etnologii im. Ch. Ch. Valikhanova, 2003. [Valuable study based extensively on Russian consular reports and some Russian archival material.]
Hamada, Masami. “La transmission du mouvement nationaliste au Turkestan oriental (Xinjiang).” Central Asian Survey, 9/1 (1990): 29-48.
—. Jihad, hijra et ‘devoir du sel’ dans l’histoire du Turkestan oriental. Turcica [Belgium], 33 (2001): 35-61. [Sharia and the concept of jihad played a continuing role under Muslim elites, but the imperial salt tax was seen as a legitimate duty to the Manchu emperors. Originally published as “‘Shio no gimu’ to ‘Seisen’ tono aida de.” Tôyôshi Kenkyû 52(2): 122-148.]

Hartmann, Martin. Chinesisch-Turkestan: Geschichte, Verwaltung, Geistesleben und Wirtschaft. Halle a. S.: Gebauer-Schwetschke, 1908.

Hidaiatov, Ärshidin. Ili Uyghurlirining milliy-azatliq härikätliri (XIX äsir). Alma-Ata: Qazaqstan “Nauka” 1978.

Hôri, Sunao. “Shincho no Kaikyo tochi no nisan no mondai: Yarukando no ichishiryo no kento o tsujite” [Some problems on the Ch’ing rule over Hui-Chiang...]. Shigaku Zasshi, 88/3 (1979): 1-36. [A study of a tax ledger suggesting that native officials were not cooperating with the conquerors in compiling figures for the poll tax.]
—. “Uiguru no rekishi to bungaku no kenkyu jokyo-Urumchi de no kenbun kara.” [Present State of Studies on Uyghur History and Literature in Ürümchi.] Seinan Ajia kenkyu [Bulletin for the Society for West and South Asia Studies, Kyoto University], 30 (Mar 1989).
—. “Kaikyo gyokubei ko” [The introduction of maize into Eastern Turkestan]. Tôyôshi Kenkyû, 52/2 (1993): 102-121.
Isiev, Daut Abdulimovich. Uigurskoe gosudarstvo Iettishar: 1864-1877. [The Uyghur State of Yettishahr, 1864-1877.] Moscow: “Nauka,” 1981.
Kabirov, Malik Niiazovich. Pereselenie iliiskikh Uigur v Semirech’e. [The Resettlement of the Ili Uyghurs in Semirech’e.] Alma-Ata: Izd-vo AN Kazakhskoi SSR, 1951.
—. Ocherki istorii uigurov Sovetskogo Kazakhstana. [Essays on the History of the Uyghurs of Soviet Kazakhstan.] Alma-Ata: Izd-vo “Nauka,” 1975.

Katanov, N. F. Pis’ma N. F. Katanova iz Sibiri i Vostochnago Turkestana. [Letters of N. F. Katanov from Siberia and East Turkistan.] St. Petersburg, 1893.

Kiernan, V. G. “Kashghar and the Politics of Central Asia, 1868-1878.” Cambridge Historical Journal, 11/3 (1955): 317-342.

Kim, Hodong. Holy War in China: the Muslim rebellion and state in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004.

Kurban, Iklil. ªarki Türkistan Cumhuriyeti, 1944-1949. Türk Tarih Kurumu yayïnlarï. VII. dizi; sa. 132. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basïmevi, 1992.

Lias, Godfrey. Kazak Exodus. London: Evans Brothers, 1956. [Using reports of Qazaq refugees in Turkey, Lias describes the events leading up to their departure from China.]

Light, Nathan. Qazaqs of China: The Local Processes of History. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana Center on Global Change and World Peace, Occasional Paper No. 22, 1994.

Lin, Enxian. Qingchao zai Xinjiang de Han Hui geli zhengce. [The Qing Dynasty policies for segregating Han and Muslims in Xinjiang.] Taibei: Taiwan shangwu yinshuguan, 1988.
Morris, L. P. “British Secret Missions in Turkestan, 1918-19.” Journal of Contemporary History, 12/2 (1977): 363-79.
Moseley, George. A Sino-Soviet Cultural Frontier: The Ili Kazakh Autonomous Chou. East Asian Research Center. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966. [Attempt at cultural and historical description using mostly published sources.]

Newby, L. J. “The begs of Xinjiang: between two worlds.” Bulletin, School of Oriental and African Studies, 61/2 (1998): 278-297.
—. “The Chinese Literary Conquest Of Xinjiang.” Modern China, 25/4 (1999): 451-474.

Norins, Martin R. Gateway to Asia: Sinkiang, Frontier of the Chinese Far West. New York: The John Day Company, 1944.

Nyman, Lars-Erik. Great Britain and Chinese, Russian and Japanese interests in Sinkiang, 1918-1934. Stockholm: Esselte studium, 1977. [One of the more balanced treatments of the “Great Game,” based on Western sources.]
—. “Sinkiang 1934-1943: Dark Decade for a Pivotal Puppet.” Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique, 32/1 (1991): 97-105.

Pantusov, Nikolai Nikolaevich. Svedeniia o Kul’dzinskom raione za 1871-1877 gody.... [Information about the Kulja Region in 1871-1877.] Kazan: v Universitetskoi tipografii, 1881.

Rossabi, Morris. “Muslim and Central Asian Revolts.” In: From Ming to Ch’ing, Jonathan D. Spence and John E. Wills Jr., eds. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979.

Ruziev, Mashur. Vozrozhdennyi uigurskii narod. [The Reborn Uyghur People.] 2nd ed. Alma-Ata: “Kazakh-stan,” 1982.

Saguchi Tôru. “Kashgaria.” Acta Asiatica, 34 (1978): 61-78.
—. “The formation of the Turfan principality under the Ch‘ing empire.” Acta Asiatica 41 (1981), pp. 76-94.
—. “Kazak Pastoralists on the Tarbaghatai Frontier under the Ch’ing.” In: Proceedings of the International Conference on China Border Area Studies. Lin En-hsien [Lin Enxian], ed. Taipei: National Chengchi University, 1985, pp. 953-996.
—. Shinkyô Minzokushi Kenkyû. Tokyo: Yoshikawa, 1986.
Samuels, Marwyn S. “Kung Tzu-Chen’s New Sinkiang.” Annals of the Association of American Geo-graphers, 66/3 (1976): 416-427.

Saray, Mehmet. Doghu Türkistan tarihi. Caghaloghlu, Istanbul: Kitabevi, 1997.

Skrine, C. P. and Pamela Night-ingale. Macartney at Kashgar: new light on British, Chinese and Russian activities in Sinkiang, 1890-1918. London: Methuen, 1973. [Based on British India and Foreign Office records; about the first British consul in Kashgar.]

Tsing Yuan. “Yakub Beg (1820-77) and the Moslem Rebellion in Chinese Turkestan.” Central Asiatic Journal, 6/1 (1961): 134-67.

Turfani, Hamid Allah ibn Muhammad. Turkistan 1331-1337 inqilab tarikhi. Istanbul: Basturun Taranquji Muhammad Qasim Amin, 1983.

Tyler, Christian. Wild West China: the taming of Xinjiang. London: John Murray, 2003.

Wang, David D. “The USSR and the Establishment of the Eastern Turkestan Republic in Xinjiang.” Bulletin of the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica [Taiwan], 25 (1996): 337-378.
—. “Xinjiang of the 20th Century in Historiography.” Central Asian Survey, 14/2 (1995): 265-283.
—. “An Oasis For Peace: Zhang Zhizhong’s Policy In Xinjiang, 1945-1947.” Central Asian Survey, 15/3-4 (1996): 413-429.
—. “Soviet Citizenship in Xinjiang.” Asian Studies Review, 19/3 (1996) : 87-97.
—. “The Xinjiang Question of the 1940s: The Story behind the SinoSoviet Treaty of August 1945.” Asian Studies Review, 21/1 (1997): 83-105.
—. The East Turkestan movement in Xinjiang: a Chinese potential source of instability? Singapore: East Asia Institute, National University of Singapore, 1998.
—. “Han Migration and Social Changes in Xinjiang.” Issues & Studies [Taiwan], 34/7 (1998): 33-61.
—. Under the Soviet Shadow: The Yining Incident; Ethnic Conflicts and International Rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944-1949. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1999. [In-depth archival study of this period.]
—. Clouds over Tianshan: essays on social disturbance in Xinjiang in the 1940s. Copenhagen: NIAS, 1999.

Wang, Dongping. Qingdai Hui Jiang falu zhidu yanjiu (1759-1884 nian) [On the legal system in Huijiang between 1759 and 1884.]. Harbin: Heilongjiang jiaoyu chubanshe, 2003.

Whiting, Allen S. and Sheng Shih-ts’ai. Sinkiang: pawn or pivot? East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1958.

Wu, Aitchen. Turkistan Tumult. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1940.

Zhu, Wenzhang [Wen-djang Chu]. The Moslem rebellion in northwest China, 1862-1878: a study of government minority policy. The Hague: Mouton, 1966.

Ziemann, Han-jung. Die Beziehungen Sinkiangs (Ostturkestan) zu China und der UdSSR, 1917-1945. Bochum: Studienverlag N. Brock-meyer, 1984.

VIII) World History, Interna-tional Relations and Manchu-Junghar Interactions

Originating in the work of Paul Pelliot, Owen Lattimore and especially Joseph Fletcher, interest in world historical approaches to the study of Chinese Central Asia and adjoining regions has been expanding. Obviously relevant are the political interactions of Mongol states with their neighbors. Among these the Moghuls and Oyirad/Junghar/Kalmyk Mongols were among the last to maintain Chingizid principles of legitimation. Another important and heavily studied international dimension involves Ya‘qûb Beg’s struggles to maintain power through alliances with the Qing, Russian, British and even Ottoman empires. The scholars making the best use of available archives and materials include Di Cosmo, Fletcher, Millward, Miyawaki, Moiseev, Pelliot, Perdue, and Zlatkin.

Bergholz, Fred W. The partition of the steppe: the struggle of the Russians, Manchus, and the Zunghar Mongols for empire in Central Asia, 1619-1758: a study in power politics. New York: Peter Lang, 1993. [Relies heavily on others’ research.]
Chen Songkun, Bai Cuiqin. Xi Menggu shi yanjiu. [Research on the history of the Western Mongols.] Ürümchi: Xinjiang renmin chubanshe, 1986.
Chernyshev, A.I. Obshchestvennoe i gosudarstvennoe razvitie oiratov v XVIII v. [The Social and State Development of the Oirats in the 18th Century.] Moscow: “Nauka,” Glav. red. vostochnoi lit-ry, 1990.

Courant, Maurice. L’Asie centrale aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles: empire kalmouk ou empire mantchou? Lyon: A. Rey, 1912.
Di Cosmo, Nicola. “Qing Colonial Administration In Inner Asia.” International History Review, 20/2 (1998): 287-309.

Dubrovskaia, Dinara Viktorovna. “Iliiskii krizis v russko-kitaiskikh otnosheniiakh.” [The Ili Crisis in Russo-Chinese Relations.] Vostok, 1994: 51-63.
—. Sud’ba Sin’tsziana: obretenie Kitaem ‘Novoi granitsy’ v kontse XIX v. Moscow: IV RAN, 1998.

Fletcher, Joseph. “China and Central Asia, 1368-1884.” In: The Chinese World Order. John K. Fairbank, ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968, pp. 207-222.
—. “Ch’ing Inner Asia c. 1800.” Cambridge History of China, vol. 10, pt. 1. John K. Fairbank, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 35-106.
—. “The heyday of the Ch’ing order in Mongolia, Sinkiang, and Tibet.” Cambridge History of China, vol. 10, pt. 1. John K. Fairbank, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 351-408.
—. Studies on Chinese and Islamic Inner Asia. Beatrice Forbes Manz, ed. Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1995. Contents:
I. A source of the Erdeni-yin erike.
II. China and Central Asia, 1368-1884.
III. An Oyirod letter in the British Museum.
IV. Central Asian Sufism and Ma Ming-hsin’s New Teaching.
V. Confrontations between Muslim missionaries and nomad unbelievers in the late sixteenth century: notes on four passages from the ‘Diya’ al-qulub’.
VI. The Naqshbandiyya and the dhikr-i arra.
VII.Turco-Mongolian monarchic tradition in the Ottoman Empire.
VIII. The biography of Khwush Kipak Beg (d. 1781) in the Wai-fan Meng-ku Hui-pu wang kung piao chuan.
IX. The Mongols: ecological and social perspectives.
X. Integrative history: parallels and interconnections in the early modern period, 1500-1800.
XI. The Naqshbandiyya in northwest China.
Gurevich, B. P. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia v Tsentral’noi Azii. 2nd edition. Moscow: “Nauka,” 1983.
— and G. F. Kim, eds. Mezhdu-narodnye otnosheniia v Tsentral’noi Azii, XVII-XVIII vv.: dokumenty i materialy.[International Relations in Central Asia, 18th-19th Centuries. Documents.] 2 vols. Moscow: “Nauka,” 1989.
Hasiotis, Arthur C. Soviet political, economic, and military involvement in Sinkiang from 1928 to 1949. New York: Garland, 1987.

Hsü, Immanuel C. Y. The Ili Crisis: A Study of Sino-Russian Diplomacy, 1878-1881. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.
Khodzhaev, Ablat. Tsinskaia imperiia, Dzhungariia i Vostochnyi Turkestan. [The Qing Empire, Jungharia and East Turkistan.] Moscow: “Nauka,” 1979. [On Qing China’s colonial policies.]
—, and B. A. Akhmedov. Tsinskaia imperiia i Vostochnyi Turkestan v XVIII v.: iz istorii mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii v Tsentral’noi Azii. [The Qing Empire and East Turkistan in the 18th Century: On the History of International Relations in Central Asia.] Tashkent: Izd-vo Fan Uzbekskoi SSR, 1991.
Kuznetsov, Viacheslav Semenovich. Tsinskaia imperiia na rubezhakh Tsentral’noi Azii: vtoraia polovina XVIII-pervaia polovina XIX v. [The Qing Empire on the Borders of Central Asia: the Second Half of the 18th-First Half of the 19th Centuries.] Novosibirsk: “Nauka,” Sibirskoe otd., 1983.

Lattimore, Owen. Pivot of Asia: Sinkiang and the Inner Asian Frontiers of China and Russia. Boston: Little, Brown, 1950. [Most relevant of his many valuable studies on Inner Asia.]

Millward, James A. “A Uyghur Muslim in Qianlong’s Court: The Meanings of the Fragrant Concubine.” Journal of Asian Studies, 53/2 (1994): 427-458.
—. “New Perspectives on the Qing Frontier.” In: Remapping China. Gail Hershatter et al, eds. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996, pp. 113-129.
—. Beyond the pass: economy, ethnicity, and empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.
—. “Coming onto the Map: ‘Western Regions’ Geography and Cartographic Nomenclature in the Making of Chinese Empire in Xinjiang.” Late Imperial China, 20/2 (1999): 61-98.
—. “Historical perspectives on contemporary Xinjiang.” Inner Asia, 2/2 (2000): 121-35.
—. “The Qing Formation, the Mongol Legacy, and the ‘End of History’ in Early Modern Central Eurasia.” In: The Qing Formation in World-Historical Time. Lynn A. Struve, ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004, pp. 92-120.

09-03-06, 23:18
Esteemed Mr.Nathan Light,
Thank you for being one of the pillars in academic research of Uygur past.
If you could bring some focus to the Guimet Museum collection of
printing woodblocks that Paul Pelliot had brought back.

Can we claim that the Uygurs printed 300 years before Gutenberg?
What is the printing history in relation to the archeological finds
or lootings ?

May God bless you !

If I can be of any service in coordinating with local scholars in Xinjiang Uygur Region please do not hesitate to contact,
we would like to honour those humble souls
like yourself,



10-03-06, 14:00
Esteemed Mr.Nathan Light,
Thank you for being one of the pillars in academic research of Uygur past.
If you could bring some focus to the Guimet Museum collection of
printing woodblocks that Paul Pelliot had brought back.

Can we claim that the Uygurs printed 300 years before Gutenberg?
What is the printing history in relation to the archeological finds
or lootings ?

May God bless you !

If I can be of any service in coordinating with local scholars in Xinjiang Uygur Region please do not hesitate to contact,fgfdgfgfhry
we would like to honour those humble souls
like yourself,ffrtretre


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